Empirical models for predicting lateral spreading and evaluation using New Zealand data
A New empirical model has been developed for predicting liquefaction-induced lateral spreading displacement and is a function of response spectral displacements and geotechnical parameters. Different from the earlier model of Zhang and Zhao (2005), the application of which was limited to Japan and California, the new model can potentially be applied anywhere if ground shaking can be estimated (by using local strong-motion attenuation relations). The new model is applied in New Zealand where the response spectral displacement is estimated using New Zealand strong-motion attenuation relations (McVerry et al. 2006). The accuracy of the new model is evaluated by comparing predicted lateral displacements with those which have been measured from aerial photos or the width of ground cracks at the Landing Road bridge, the James Street loop, the Whakatane Pony Club and the Edgecumbe road and rail bridges sites after the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Results show that most predicted errors (defined as the ratio of the difference between the measured and predicted lateral displacements to the measured one) from the new model are less than 40%. When compared with earlier models (Youd et al. 2002, Zhang and Zhao 2005), the new model provides the lowest mean errors.
Bardet, J-P., Mace, N. and Tobita, T. (1999). "Liquefaction-induced Ground Deformation and Failure", Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southern California, A report to PEER/PG&E, Task 4A - Phase
Bartlett, S.F. and Youd, T.L. (1995). "Empirical prediction of lateral spread displacement." J. Geotech Engng; 121(4): 316-329. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1995)121:4(316)
Beetham, R., Dellow, G., Cousins, J., Mouslopoulou, V., Hoverd, J., Gerstenberger, M., Stephenson, B., Davenport, P. and Barker, P. (2004). "Whakatane Microzoning Study", Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences, Client Report 2004/18.
Bienvenu, V. (1988). "Studies of liquefaction in 1929 Murchison and 1968 Inangahua, New Zealand earthquakes", Master of Engineering Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Christensen, S.A. (1995). "Liquefaction of Cohesionless Soils in the March 2, 1987 Edgecumbe Earthquake, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and Other Earthquakes", University of Canterbury, Department of Civil Engineering, January.
Cousins, W.J., Zhao, J.X. and Perrin, N.D. (1999). "A model for the attenuation of peak ground acceleration in New Zealand earthquakes based on seismograph and accelerograph data." Bulletin of the NZ Society for Earthquake Engineering; 32(4): 193-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.32.4.193-220
Hamada, M., Yasuda, S., Isoyama, R. and Emoto, K.(1986). "Study on liquefaction-induced permanent ground displacement". Report for the Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction.
McVerry, G.H., Zhao, J.X., Abrahamson, N.A. and Somerville, G.H. (2006). "New Zealand acceleration response spectrum attenuation relations for Crustal and Subduction earthquakes", Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 39(1): 1-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.39.1.1-58
Pender, M.J. and Robertson, T.W. (1987). "Edgecumbe Earthquake: Reconnaissance Report." Bulletin of the NZ Society for Earthquake Engineering; 20(3): 201-248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.20.3.201-249
Sadigh, K., Chang, C.-Y., Egan, J.A., Makdisi, F. and Youngs, R.R. (1997). "Attenuation relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes based on California strong motion data", Seismological Research Letters; 68(1): 180-189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.68.1.180
Youd, T.L., website: www.et.byu.edu/ce/ceen.php?page=youd/liq.htm
Youd, T.L., Hansen, C.M. and Bartlett, S.F. (2002). "Revised multilinear regression equations for prediction of lateral spread displacement." J. Geotech and Geoenvironmental Engng; 128(12): 1007-1017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2002)128:12(1007)
Youngs, R.R., Chiou, S-J., Silva, W.J. and Humphrey, J.R. (1997). "Strong ground motion attenuation relationships for subduction zone earthquakes." Seismological Research Letters; 68(1): 58-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.68.1.58
Takahashi, T., Saiki, T., Okada, H., Irikura, K., Zhao, J.X., Zhang, J., Thio, H.K., Somerville. P.G., Fukushima, Y. and Fukushima, Y. (2004). "Attenuation models for response spectra derived from Japanese strong-motion records accounting for tectonic source types." 13th WCEE, Canada, Paper No.1271.
Zhang, G., Robertson, P.K. and Brachman, R.W.I. (2004). "Estimating Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Displacements Using the Standard Penetration Test or Core Penetration Test." J. Geotech and Geoenvironmental Engng; 130(8): 861-871. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:8(861)
Zhang, J. and Zhao, J.X. (2005). "Empirical Models for Estimating Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spread Displacement", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering; 25: 439-450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.04.002
Zhao, J.X., Zhang, J., Asano, A., Ohno,Y., Oouchi, T., Takahashi, T., Ogawa, H., Irikura, K., Thio, H.K., Somerville, P.G., Fukushima, Y. and Fukushima Y. (2006). "Attenuation relations of strong ground motion in Japan using site classification based on predominant period", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, in press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120050122
Copyright (c) 2008 Jian Zhang, Dick Beetham, Grant Dellow, John X. Zhao, Graeme H. McVerry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.