URM bearing wall building seismic risk mitigation on the west coast of the United States

A review of policies and practices

  • Brandon Paxton Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd., Victoria, Canada
  • Fred Turner Alfred E. Alquist California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, USA
  • Ken Elwood University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Jason M. Ingham University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0989-9097

Abstract

Unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings are the most common target for seismic risk mitigation programmes, due to their long history of poor seismic performance. While seismic risk mitigation must make use of sound engineering methodologies, good public policy is at the heart of successful programmes. Past URM seismic risk mitigation efforts on the west coast of the United States are summarized herein, as valuable insights have been gained from both successful and unsuccessful programmes. Programme details such as compliance deadlines, retrofit design techniques, and retrofit/demolition rates are provided for cities throughout California, Oregon and Washington states, and the overall observed effectiveness of mandatory versus non-mandatory seismic strengthening programmes is discussed.

References

Wailes CD and Horner AD (1933). “Survey of Earthquake Damage at Long Beach, California”. Engineering News Record. May 25.

FEMA (1998). “FEMA 275 – Planning for Seismic Rehabilitation: Societal Issues”. Federal Emergency Manage Agency, Washington, DC, USA

California Legislature (1933). “Session Laws of the California Legislature”. Chapter 601, Statutes of 1993, 50th Session.

Turner F (2004). “Seventy Years of The Riley Act and its Effect on California’s Building Stock”. Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

FEMA (2009). “FEMA P-774: Unreinforced Masonry Buildings and Earthquakes: Developing Successful Risk Mitigation Programmes”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

Stover CW and Coffman JL (1993). “Seismicity of The United States, 1568-1989 (Revised)”. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1527

Lizundia B, Dong W and Holmes W (1993). “Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry Damage Patterns in the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Improvement of Loss Estimation Methodologies”. Technical Report to the United States Geological Survey.

Bruneau M (1995). “Performance of Masonry Structures during the 1994 Northridge (Los Angeles) Earthquake”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 22: 378-402.

ICBO (1973). “Uniform Building Code”. International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, CA, USA.

ABK (1984). “Methodology for Mitigation of Seismic Hazards in Unreinforced Masonry Buildings – TR-04: The Methodology”. ABK Joint Venture, El Segundo, CA, USA.

City of Los Angeles (1987). “Rule of General Application #1-87 Establishing an Alternate Design Methodology for Unreinforced Masonry Buildings”. CA, USA.

City of Los Angeles (1985). “Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Unreinforced Masonry Buildings”. Division 88 of the City of Los Angeles Building Code, CA, USA.

ICBO (1985). “Uniform Code for Building Conservation”. International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, CA, USA.

National Research Council of Canada (1992). “Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings”. Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

ICC (2012). “International Existing Building Code”. International Code Conference, Country Club Hills, IL, USA.

ASCE (2013). “Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings”. ASCE 41-13, Chapter 15. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USA.

Tena-Colunga A and Abrams DP (1992). “Response of an Unreinforced Masonry Building during the Loma Prieta Earthquake”. Proceedings of the Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

SEAOC (1989). "Ten Issues Raised by SEAOC Task Committee on Earthquake Hazard Reduction of URM Buildings". June 9, 1989, Nels Roselund, Kariotis Associates, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Bruneau M (1994). “Seismic Evaluation of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings – A State of The Art Report”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 21: 512-539.

City of San Francisco (2013). “Seismic Strengthening Provisions for Unreinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings”. San Francisco Building Code, Chapter 16C, San Francisco, CA, USA.

State of California (1992). “Health and Safety Code”. Section 17922.2, CA, USA.

ICBO (2001). “Guidelines for Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings”. International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, CA. USA.

CSSC (2009). "The Field Act and its Relative Effectiveness in Reducing Earthquake Damage in CA Public Schools". California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

EERI (2010). "The El Mayor Cucapah, Baja CA Earthquake April 4, 2010". Oakland, CA, USA.

Alesch DJ, Arendt LA and Petak WJ (2011). “Natural Hazard Mitigation Policy”. Springer Publishing, NY, USA.

California Legislature (1986). “The URM Law”. California Government Code Section 8875, CA, USA.

CSSC (2006). “Status of the Unreinforced Masonry Building Law”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

CSSC (2001). “Findings and Recommendations on Hospital Seismic Safety”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

CSSC (1992). “1992 Status of California’s Unreinforced Masonry Building Law”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA

Hoover C (1992). “Seismic Retrofit Policies: An Evaluation of Local Practices in Zone 4 and their Application to Zone 3”. Seattle, WA, USA.

CSSC (1995). “Status of the Unreinforced Masonry Building Law”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Rutherford and Chekene (1997). “Development of Procedures to Enhance the Performance of Rehabilitated URM Buildings”. United States Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg, ML, USA.

Comerio M (1989). “Seismic Costs and Policy Implications”. Report to the City of Los Angeles Community Development Department, CA, USA.

Kashefi I (2011). “Seismic Risk Reduction Through Building Code Enforcement”. SEAOC Earthquake Loss Reduction Summit, October 2011.

Alesch DJ and Petak WJ (1986). “The Politics and Economics of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation: Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in Southern California”. University of Colorado Institute of Behavioural Science, Boulder, CO, USA.

EERI (1994). “Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings”. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA.

Gibson Economic (2014). “Seattle Unreinforced Masonry Retrofit Policy – Cost Analysis”. Report to the Seattle Department of Planning and Development, WA, USA.

Herman F, Russell J, Scott S and Sharpe R (1990). “Earthquake Hazard Identification and Voluntary Mitigation: Palo Alto’s City Ordinance”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Bonnevile D and Cocke D (1991). “Effectiveness of Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings”. Proceedings of The Seismic Retrofit of Historic Buildings Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA.

City of San Francisco (2015). “San Francisco Municipal Code.” San Francisco, CA, USA.

Otellini P (2014). “Testimony before the California Seismic Safety Commission about San Francisco’s Earthquake Safety Implementation Program”. October 9. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Techel J (2014). “Testimony before the California Seismic Safety Commission about Napa’s URM buildings”. October 8, 2014. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

CSSC (2003). “Status of the Unreinforced Masonry Building Law”. California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, CA, USA.

City of Napa (2014). “Napa Municipal Code”. http://qcode.us/codes/napa/, Retrieved October 5, 2014.

San Jose Mercury News (2014). “Quake Retrofit Scofflaws Ignore Compliance at Public’s Peril, Officials Say”. http://www.mercurynews.com/my-town/ci_26615654quake-retrofit-scofflaws-ignore-compliance-at-publics-peril. Retrieved October 5, 2014.

Galloway B and Ingham J (2015). “The 2014 South Napa Earthquake and its Relevance for New Zealand”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 48(1): 1-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.48.1.1-30

Lewis D (2007). “Statewide Seismic Needs Assessment”. Report to the Oregon Legislative Assembly, Portland, OR, USA.

City of Portland (2014). “Seismic Design Requirements for Existing Buildings”. Section 24.85 of the Portland City Code, OR, USA.

McMonies W (2011). “No Country for Old Buildings”. http://www.lanepowell.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/McMonies_ppt.pdf. Retrieved October 5, 2014.

City of Tacoma (2014). “Minimum Building and Structures Code”. Section 2.01 Tacoma Municipal Code, WA, USA.

Rogers AM, Walsh TJ, Kockelman WJ and Priest GR (1998). “Assessing Earthquake Hazards and Reducing Risk in the Pacific Northwest”. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1560, Washington, DC, USA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1560

FEMA (1990). “FEMA 199: Financial Incentives for Rehabilitation of Hazardous Buildings – An Agenda for Action”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

ICC (2000). “International Building Code”. International Code Conference, Country Club Hills, IL, USA.

City of Seattle (2009). “Existing Buildings and Structures”. Chapter 34 of the Seattle Building Code, Seattle, WA, USA.

City of Seattle (2012). “Final Report from URM Technical Committee & Proposed Retrofit Standard”. Seattle, WA, USA.

City of Seattle (2013) “Recommendations for an Unreinforced Masonry Policy”. Seattle, WA, USA.

National Park Service (2012). “Historic Preservation Tax Incentives”. US Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

Published
2015-03-31
How to Cite
Paxton, B., Turner, F., Elwood, K., & Ingham, J. M. (2015). URM bearing wall building seismic risk mitigation on the west coast of the United States. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 48(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.48.1.31-40
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>