Experimental study of the seismic performance of plasterboard partition walls with seismic gaps
It is now widely recognized that the performance of non-structural elements is crucial to the performance of building systems during earthquakes. Field surveys and experimental studies have shown that light steel or timber framed plasterboard partition walls are particularly vulnerable. The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic performance of a novel seismic gap partition system with angled return walls under quasi-static cyclic loading applied obliquely and to investigate the benefits of using acrylic gap-filler in the seismic gaps. Two specimens were tested: a steel stud specimen and a timber stud specimen. Observed drift capacities were significantly greater than traditional plasterboard partition systems. Equations were used to predict the drift at which damage state 1 (DS1) and damage state 2 (DS2) would initiate. The equation used to estimate the drift at the onset of DS1 accurately predicted the onset of plaster cracking but overestimated the drift at which the gap filling material was damaged. The equation used to predict the onset of DS2 provided a lower bound for both specimens and also when used to predict results of previous experimental tests on seismic gap systems. The gap-filling material reduced the drift at the onset of DS1, however, it had a beneficial effect on the re-centring behaviour of the linings. Out-of-plane displacements and return wall configuration did not appear to significantly impact the onset of plaster cracking in the specimens.
Taghavi S and Miranda E (2003). “Response Assessment of Nonstructural Building Elements”. Report 2003/05. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Centre, Berkley, 96 pp.
Khakurel S, Dhakal RP, Yeow T and Saha S (2020). “Performance group weighting factors for rapid seismic loss estimation of buildings of different usage”. Earthquake Spectra, 36(3): 1141-1165. https://doi.org/10.1177/8755293019901311
Bradley BA, Dhakal RP, Cubrinovski M and MacRae GA (2009). “Seismic loss estimation for efficient decision making”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering, 42(2): 96-110. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.42.2.96-110
Dhakal RP, Pourali A and Saha S (2016). “Simplified seismic loss functions for suspended ceilings and drywall partitions”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Special Issue on Seismic Performance of Non-Structural Elements (SPONSE), 49(1): 64-78. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.49.1.64-78
Whitman RV, Hong S-T and Reed JW (1973). “Damage Statistics for Highrise Buildings in the Vicinity of the San Fernando Earthquake”. Report NSF-RA-E-73-549, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, 226 pp.
Davies RD, Retamales R, Mosqueda G and Filiatrault A (2011). “Experimental Seismic Evaluation, Model Parameterization, and Effects of Cold-Formed Steel-Framed Gypsum Partition Walls on the Seismic Performance of an Essential Facility”. Technical Report MCEER-11-0005, University at Buffalo, New York, 221 pp.
Arifin FA (2017). “Identification of Cost-Effective Retrofit and/or Rehabilitation Strategies for Steel Buildings”. Masters Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 306 pp.
Dhakal RP (2010). “Damage to non-structural components and contents in 2010 Darfield earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4): 404–410. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.4.404-410
Baird A, Tasligedik AS, Palermo A and Pampanin S (2014). “Seismic performance of vertical nonstructural components in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(1): 401–425. https://doi.org/10.1193/031013EQS067M
Freeman SA (1971). “Third Progress Report on Racking Tests of Wall Panels”. Report JAB-99-54, University of California, Berkeley, 270 pp.
Rihal SS (1980). “Racking Building Tests of Non-Structural Building Partitions”. Report ARCE R90-1, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 123 pp.
Adham SA, Avanessian V, Hart GC, Anderson RW, Elmlinger J and Gregory J (1990). “Shear wall resistance of lightgage steel stud wall systems”. Earthquake Spectra, 6(1): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585555
Lee TH, Kato M, Matsumiya T, Suita K and Nakashima M (2007). “Seismic performance evaluation of non-structural components: Drywall partitions”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 36(3): 367–382. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.638
Restrepo JI and Bersofsky AM (2011). “Performance characteristics of light gage steel stud partition walls”. Thin-Walled Structures, 49(2): 317–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2010.10.001
Jenkins C, Soroushian S, Rahmanishamsi E and Maragakis EM (2016). “Experimental fragility analysis of cold-formed steel-framed partition wall systems”. Thin-Walled Structures, 103: 1760-1773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2016.02.015
Petrone C, Magliulo G, Lopez P and Manfredi G (2016). “Out-of-plane seismic performance of plasterboard partition walls via quasi-static tests”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering, 49(1): 125-137. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.49.1.125-137
Mulligan JG, Sullivan TJ and Dhakal RP (2020). “Experimental Seismic Performance of Partly-Sliding Partition Walls”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1733139
Araya-Letelier G and Miranda E (2012). “Novel sliding/frictional connections for improved seismic performance of gypsum wallboard partitions”. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 24-28 September, Lisbon, Portugal.
Magliulo G, Petrone C, Capozzi V, Maddaloni G, Lopez P and Manfredi G (2014). “Seismic performance evaluation of plasterboard partitions via shake table tests”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 12(4): 1657–1677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-013-9567-8
Tasligedik AS, Pampanin S and Palermo A (2015). “Low damage seismic solutions for non-structural drywall partitions”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13(4): 1029–1050. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-014-9654-5
Pali T, Bucciero B, Terracciano MT, Macillo V, Fiorino L and Landolfo R (2017). “In-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on lightweight steel drywall non-structural partition walls”. ce/papers, 1(2-3): 2857–2866. https://doi.org/10.1002/cepa.337
Pali T, Macillo V, Terracciano M, Bucciero B, Fiorino L and Landolfo R (2018). “In‐plane quasi‐static cyclic tests of nonstructural lightweight steel drywall partitions for seismic performance evaluation”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 47(6): 1566–1588. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3031
Winstone Wallboards (2012). “GIB Fire Rated Systems”. Report CBI 5113, Winstone Wallboards, Auckland, 84 pp.
Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) (2007). “FEMA 461: Interim Testing Protocols for Determining the Seismic Performance Characteristics of Structural and Nonstructural Components”. Washington D.C., 138 pp.