‘End to end’ linkage structure for integrated impact assessment of infrastructure networks under natural hazards

  • Yasir Syed Massey University, Wellington
  • S R Uma GNS Science, Lower Hutt, NZ
  • Raj Prasanna Massey University, Wellington
  • Liam Wotherspoon University of Auckland, NZ


An infrastructure impact assessment process relies on the analysis of multiple types of models, the performance of individual infrastructure networks and the interdependencies between multiple infrastructure networks. Several models are developed for their specific purposes and there is a need to link these models for the assessment of natural hazard impacts on distributed infrastructures to deliver the desired outcomes on network functionality and disruption levels that are suitable to assess socio-economic impact. In this paper, an ‘end-to-end’ linkage structure is proposed to link different models by which various features, data standards, parameters and structures are linked in a transparent and consistent manner. The framework has adopted a dedicated knowledge discovery and data analysis process to acquire information around input and output parameters for each of these models developed by various researchers and used in risk assessment tools. The framework is illustrated by applying the step-by-step procedure towards integrated impact assessments of electricity, potable water and road networks and their interdependencies.


Bebbington M, Cronin SJ, Chapman I and Turner MB (2008). “Quantifying volcanic ash fall hazard to electricity infrastructure”. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177(4): 1055-1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.07.023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.07.023

King A, Cousins J, Heron D, Matcham I, Pringle R, Bell R, Reese S, Schmidt J and Henderson (2007). “Regional RiskScape : A multi-hazard loss modelling tool”. Atmospheric Research.

Boulos PF, Jacobsen LB, Heath JE and Kamojjala S (2014). “Real-time modeling of water distribution systems : A case study”. Journal AWWA, 106(9): 391-401.

https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2014.106.0076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2014.106.0076

Buxton R, Fenwick T, Mcdonald G, and Mieler DH (2016). “A Sectoral Level Interdependencies Model for Critical Infrastructure”. GNS Science Report 2015/29, Lower Hutt, NZ, 13pp.

Nan C and Sansavini G (2017). “A quantitative method for assessing resilience of interdependent infrastructures”. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 157: 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2016.08.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2016.08.013

Zorn C, Pant R, Thacker S and Shamseldin AY (2020). “Evaluating the magnitude and spatial extent of disruptions across interdependent national infrastructure networks”. ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems Part B: Mechanical Engineering, 6(2): 1-35. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4046327 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4046327

Paltrinieri N, Breedveld L, Wilday J and Cozzani V (2013). “Identification of hazards and environmental impact assessment for an integrated approach to emerging risks of CO2 capture installations”. Energy Procedia, 37: 2811-2818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.166 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.166

Chen AS, Hammond MJ, Djordjević S, Butler D, Khan DM and Veerbeek W (2016). “From hazard to impact: flood damage assessment tools for mega cities”. Natural Hazards, 82(2): 857-890.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2223-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2223-2

Deligne NI (2016), “Developing volcanic hazard and risk models for the Auckland Volcanic Field as part of the DEVORA project”. Final Report for EQC Project 12/U640.

https://www.eqc.govt.nz/sites/public_files/4620-Developing-volcanic-hazard-and risk-models-Auckland-Volcanic-Field.pdf

Schmidt J, Turek G, Matcham I, Reese S, Bell R and King A (2007). “RiskScape - An innovative tool for multi-hazard risk modelling”. Geophysics Research Abstracts, 9.

Gallina V, Torresan S, Critto A, Sperotto A, Glade T and Marcomini A (2015). “A review of multi-risk methodologies for natural hazards: consequences and challenges for a climate change impact assessment”. Journal of Environmental Management, 168: 123–132.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.11.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.11.011

Pant R, Thacker S and Hall JW (2017). “System-of-systems framework for global infrastructure vulnerability assessments”. Environmental Change Institute (ECI), GGKP Annual Conference.

https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/downloads/resource/System-of-systems framework for global infrastructure vulnerability assessments.pdf

Menoni S, Pergalani F, Boni M and Petrini V (2002). “Lifelines earthquake vulnerability assessment: a systemic approach”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(9-12): 1199-1208.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0267-7261(02)00148-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0267-7261(02)00148-3

Ouyang M, Hong L, Mao ZJ, Yu MH and Qi F (2009). “A methodological approach to analyze vulnerability of interdependent infrastructures”. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 17(5): 817-828.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2009.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2009.02.001

FEMA (1991). “Seismic Vulnerability and Impact of Disruption of Lifelines in the Conterminous United States”. Applied Technology Council Report ATC-25, 440pp.


Zhang C, Liu X, Jiang YP, Fan B and Song X (2014). “A two-stage resource allocation model for lifeline systems quick response with vulnerability analysis”. European Journal of Operational Research, 250(3): 855-864.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.10.022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.10.022

Johansen C and Tien I (2017). “Probabilistic multi-scale modeling of interdependencies between critical infrastructure systems for resilience”. Sustainable Resilient Infrastructure, 3(1): 1-15.

https://doi.org/10.1080/23789689.2017.1345253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23789689.2017.1345253

Bočkarjova M, Steenge AE and van der Veen A (2004). “On direct estimation of initial damage in the case of a major catastrophe: derivation of the ‘basic equation”. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(4).

https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560410556555 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560410556555

Anil EB, Akinci B, Garrett JH and Kurc O (2016). “Information requirements for earthquake damage assessment of structural walls”. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 30(1): 54-64.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2015.12.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2015.12.002

Peerenboom JP and Fisher RE (2007). “Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies”. 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'07), 3-6 January, Waikoloa, HI, USA.

https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.78 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.78

Puuska S, Rummukainen L, Timonen J, Lääperi L, Klemetti M, Oksama L and Vankka J (2018). “Nationwide critical infrastructure monitoring using a common operating picture framework”. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 20: 28-47.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcip.2017.11.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcip.2017.11.005

Klashner R and Sabet S (2007). “A DSS design model for complex problems: lessons from mission critical infrastructure”. Decision Support Systems, 43(3): 990-1013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2005.05.027 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2005.05.027

Riekkola AK, Berg C, Ahlgren E and Söderholm P (2013). “Challenges in Soft-Linking: the Case of EMEC and TIMES-Sweden”. Working Paper 133, National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm.

Laprie JC, Kanoun K and Kaaniche M (2007). “Modelling interdependencies between the electricity and information infrastructures”. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.4107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75101-4_5

Erdener BC, Pambour KA, Lavin RB and Dengiz B (2014). “An integrated simulation model for analysing electricity and gas systems”. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 61: 410-420.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.052 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.052

Pant R, Thacker S, Hall JW, Alderson D and Barr S (2017). “Critical infrastructure impact assessment due to flood exposure”. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 11: 22–33.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12288 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12288

Schmidt J, Matcham I, Reese S, King A, Bell R, Henderson R, Smart G, Cousins J, Smith W and Heron D (2011). “Quantitative multi-risk analysis for natural hazards: a framework for multi-risk modelling”. Natural Hazards, 58(3): 1169-1192.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9721-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9721-z

Sudret B, Mai C and Konakli K (2017). “Assessment of the lognormality assumption of seismic fragility curves using non-parametric representations”. Strutural Safety Journal.


Lee S, Hwang S, Park M and Lee HS (2018). “Damage propagation from component level to system level in the electricity sector”. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 24(3): 1-13.

https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000437 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000437

Panzieri S, Setola R and Ulivi G (2005). “An approach to model complex interdependent infrastructures”. IFAC Proceeding Volumes, 38(1): 404-409. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3182/20050703-6-CZ-1902.00068


Hasan S and Foliente GC (2015). “Modeling infrastructure system interdependencies and socioeconomic impacts of failure in extreme events: emerging R&D challenges”. Natural Hazards, 78(3): 2143-2168.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1814-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1814-7

Lewis LP and Petit F (2019). “Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Analysis: Operationalising Resilience Strategies”. Contributing Paper to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR 2019), 33pp.


Huang CN, Liou JJH and Chuang YC (2014). “A method for exploring the interdependencies and importance of critical infrastructures”. Knowledge-Based Systems, 55: 66-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2013.10.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2013.10.010

Creswell JW (2013). “Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches”. Fourth Edition, ISBN: 978-1452226095, Sage Publications.

Mowll R, Brunsdon DR, Wilde F and Leslie PD (2013). “Understanding the impact of a major earthquake on Wellington lifelines”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering, 46(2): 109-115.

https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.2.109-115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.2.109-115

New Zealand ShakeOut - Wellington Earthquake Hazards. http://www.shakeout.govt.nz/wellington/ (Accessed 11 August 2019)

Marshall C and Rossman GB (2006). “Designing Qualitative Research”. Sixth Edition, ISBN: 978-1452271002, Sage Publications.

Creswell JW (2018). “Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches”. Fifth Edition, ISBN: 978-1506386706, Sage Publications.

O’Fallon C (2003). “Linkages Between Infrastructure and Economic Growth”. Pinnacle Research Report prepared for Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, 14pp. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Chou CC, Tseng SM and Ho TW (2009). “Data collection and analysis of critical infrastructure interdependency relationships”. Computing in Civil Engineering.

https://doi.org/10.1061/41052(346)28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/41052(346)28

Rinaldi S, Peerenboom JP and Kelly TK (2001). “Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies”. IEEE Control System Magazine, 21(6): 11-25. https://doi.org/10.1109/37.969131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/37.969131

Mowll R (2012). “Lifeline Utilities Restoration Times for Metropolitan Wellington Following a Wellington Fault Earthquake”. Report to the Wellington CDEM Group Joint Committee from the Wellington Lifelines Group. Wellington Lifelines Group, 63pp.

Statistics New Zealand. Home | Stats NZ. https://www.stats.govt.nz (Accessed 10 February 2018)

How to Cite
Syed, Y., Uma, S. R., Prasanna, R., & Wotherspoon, L. (2021). ‘End to end’ linkage structure for integrated impact assessment of infrastructure networks under natural hazards. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 54(2), 153-162. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.54.2.153-162

Most read articles by the same author(s)