Comparison of Force-Based and Displacement-Based Design approaches for RC coupled walls in New Zealand
Reinforced concrete coupled walls are a common lateral load resisting system used in multi-storey buildings. The effect of the coupling beams can improve seismic performance, but at the same time adds complexity to the design procedure. A case study coupled wall building is designed using Force-Based Design (FBD) and Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) and in the case of the latter a step by step design example is provided. Distributed plasticity fibre-section beam element numerical models of the coupled walls are developed in which coupling beams are represented by diagonal truss elements and experimental results are used to confirm that this approach can provide a good representation of hysteretic behaviour. The accuracy of the two different design methods is then assessed by comparing the design predictions to the results of non-linear time-history analyses. It is shown that the DDBD approach gives an accurate prediction of inter-storey drift response. The FBD approach, in accordance with NZS1170.5 and NZS3101, is shown to include an impractical procedure for the assignment of coupling beam strengths and code equations for the calculation of coupling beam characteristics appear to include errors. Finally, the work highlights differences between the P-delta considerations that are made in FBD and DDBD, and shows that the code results are very sensitive to the way in which P-delta effects are accounted for.
NZS1170.5 , Structural Design Actions – Part 5 – Earthquake Actions, Standards New Zealand (Code and Commentary).
NZS3101 , Concrete Structures Standard – Part 1 (Code) and Part 2 (Commentary), Standards New Zealand.
Priestley, M.J.N.  “Myths and fallacies in earthquake engineering – conflicts between design and reality,” Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 26(3). 329-341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.26.3.329-341
Priestley, M.J.N. , Myths and Fallacies in Earthquake Engineering, Revisited. The 9th Mallet Milne Lecture, IUSS Press, Pavia.
Priestley, M.J.N., Calvi, G.M. and Kowalsky, M.J.  Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
Paulay, T.  “The coupling of shear walls,” Doctoral Thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
Paulay, T. and Binney, J.R.  “Diagonally reinforced coupling beams of shear walls,” Publication SP-42, American Concrete Institute. 579-598.
Paulay, T.  “The displacement capacity of reinforced concrete coupled walls,” Engineering Structures. 24. 1165-1175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00050-0
Sullivan, T.J., Calvi, G.M., Priestley, M.J.N. (Editors)  A Model Code for the Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures DBD12, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
Fox, M.J.  “Seismic Design of Coupled Walls,” Masters Thesis, ROSE programme, UME School, IUSS Pavia, Italy.
Sullivan, T.J., Priestley, M.J.N. and Calvi, G.M.  “Development of an innovative seismic design procedure for frame-wall structures,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 9(Special Issue 2), 279-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S1363246905002407
Sullivan, T.J., Priestley, M.J.N. and Calvi, G.M.  “Direct displacement based design of frame-wall structures,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 10(Special Issue 1), 91-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460609350630
Priestley, M.J.N., Seible, F. and Calvi, G.M.  Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges, Wiley, New York.
Fox, M.J., Sullivan, T.J. and Beyer, K.  “Capacity design of coupled RC walls,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 18(5), 735-758. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2014.904255
Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission  Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission (Te Komihana Rūwhenua o Waitaha) Final Report: Volume 1, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Grant, D.N., Blandon, C.A. and Priestley, M.J.N.  Modelling Inelastic Response in Direct Displacement- Based Design, Report 2005/03, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
Pennucci, D., Sullivan, T.J. and Calvi, G.M.  “Displacement reduction factors for the design of medium and long period structures,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 15(Supp. 1), 1-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2011.562073
Seismosoft  SeismoStruct: A Computer Program for Static and Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Framed Structures, Version 6, http://www.seismosoft.com.
Menegotto, M. and Pinto, P.E.  “Method of analysis for cyclically loaded R.C. plane frames including changes in geometry and non-linear behaviour of elastic elements under combined normal force and bending,” Symposium on the Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Zurich, Switzerland, 15-22.
Yazgan, U. and Dazio, A.  “Critical aspects of finite element modeling of RC structures for seismic performance assessment,” Proceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 404, Toronto, Canada.
Petrini, L., Maggi, C., Priestley, M.J.N. and Calvi, G.M.  “Experimental verification of viscous damping modeling for inelastic time history analyses [sic],” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12(Supp 1). 125-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460801925822
Correia, A.A., Almeida, J.P. and Pinho, R.  “Seismic energy dissipation in inelastic frames: understanding state-of-the-practice damping models,” Structural Engineering International, 2/2013. 148-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2749/101686613X13439149157001
Beyer, K., Simonini, S., Constantin, R. and Rutenburg, A.  “Seismic shear distribution among interconnected cantilever walls of different lengths,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, published online DOI 10.1002/eqe.2403.
Beyer, K., Dazio, A. and Priestley, M.J.N.  “Shear deformations of slender reinforced concrete walls under seismic loading,” ACI Structural Journal. 108(2). 167-177.
Dazio, A., Beyer, K. and Bachmann, H.  “Quasistatic cyclic tests and plastic hinge analysis of RC walls,” Engineering Structures. 31(7). 1556-1571. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.018
Maley, T.J., Sullivan, T.J., Lago, A., Roldan, R. and Calvi, G.M.  Characterising the Seismic Behaviour of Steel MRF Structures, Report 2013/02, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
Copyright (c) 2014 Matthew J. Fox, Timothy J. Sullivan, Katrin Beyer
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.