2D seismic numerical analysis of segmental tunnel lining behaviour

Abstract

Segmental tunnel linings are now often used for seismic areas in many countries. Some prescriptions and guidelines specifically address the issue of seismic design. Unfortunately, the behaviour of segmental tunnel lining under seismic loads is still somewhat unclear. The influence of segment joints on tunnel lining behaviour during seismic loading has in fact not been quantitatively estimated in the literature. This paper presents a numerical study in order to investigate the performance of segmental tunnel lining under seismic excitation. Analyses have been carried out using a two-dimensional finite difference element model. The seismic signal obtained from an earthquake in Nice has been adopted as input. The numerical results show that a segmental lining can perform better than a continuous lining during an earthquake. The effect of plasticity of the soil constitutive model on the tunnel lining has also been highlighted. The results have indicated that an elastic analysis is not sufficient to determine the seismic induced response of a soil-tunnel system. Moreover, comparative results have pointed out that equivalent static solutions could result in smaller structural lining forces than those of a true dynamic analysis.

References

AFPS/AFTES (2001). Earthquake design and protection of underground structures.

Akhlaghi, T. and Nikkar, A. (2014). “Effect of vertically propagating shear waves on seismic behavior of circular tunnels”. The Scientific World Journal, doi.org/10.1155/2014/806092. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/806092

Amorosi A., Boldini D. (2009). “Numerical modeling of the transverse dynamic behavior of circular tunnels in clayey soils”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29: 1059-1072.

Anastasopoulos, L., Gerolymos, N., Drosos, L. et al. (2007). “Nonlinear response of deep immersed tunnel to strong seismic shaking”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(9): 1067-1090. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:9(1067)

Bazaz, J.B. and Besharat, V. (2008). “An investigation on seismic analysis of shallow tunnels in soil medium”. The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, Beijing, China.

Bilotta, E., Lanzano, G., Russo, G., Silvestri, F., Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2009). “Seismic analyses of shallow tunnels by dynamic centrifuge tests and finite elements”. Proc. 17th Int. Conf on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandrìa, Egypt.

Bobet, A. (2003). “Effect of pore water pressure on tunnel support during static and seismic”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 18: 377-393.

Cao, X. and Yan, S. (2013). “Numerical analysis for earthquake dynamic responses of tunnel with different lining rigidity based on finite element method”. Information Technology Journal, 12: 2599-2604. doi: 10.3923/itj.2013.2599.2604. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/itj.2013.2599.2604

Chen, J., Jiang, L., Li, J. and Shi, X. (2012). “Numerical simulation of shaking table test on utility tunnel under non-uniform earthquake excitation”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 30: 205-216.

Chen, S.L. and Gui, M.W. (2011). “Seismic performance of tunnel lining of side-by-side and vertically stacked twin-tunnels”. Journal of Cent. South Univ. Technol., 18: 1226-1234.

Cilingir, U. and Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2010). “Effect of depth on seismic response of circular tunnels”. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48: 117-127.

Corigliano, M., Scandella, L., Lai, C.G., Paolucci, R. (2011). « Seismic analysis of deep tunnels near fault conditions: a case study in Southern Italy”. Bull Earthquake Eng., 9:975-995.

Croce, A. (2011). “Analisi dati di monitoraggio del rivestimento della galleria del passante ferroviario di Bologna”. Degree dissertation, Polytechnics of Turin, Italy. (in Italian)

Dean, A., Young, D.J. and Kramer, G.J.E. (2006). “The use and performance of precast concrete tunnel linings in seismic areas”. IAEG2006, Paper number 679,.

Debiasi, E., Gajo, A., Zonta, D. (2013). “On the seismic response of shallow-buried rectangular structures”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 38: 99-113.

Do, N.A., Dias, D., Oreste, P.P. and Djeran-Maigre, I. (2013). “2D numerical investigation of segmental tunnel lining behaviour”. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 37: 115-127.

Do, N.A., Dias, D., Oreste, P.P. and Djeran-Maigre, I. (2013). “Tunnel Numerical Investigation - The Influence of the Simplified Excavation Method on Tunnel Behaviour”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 32(1), 43-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-013-9690-y

Do, N.A., Dias, D., Oreste, P.P. and Djeran-Maigre, I. (2013). “Three-dimensional numerical simulation for mechanized tunnelling in soft ground: the influence of the joint pattern”. Acta Geotechnica. doi 10.1007/s11440-013-0279-7

Fahimifar, A. and Vakilzadeh, A. (2009). “Numerical and analytical solutions for ovaling deformation in circular tunnels under seismic load”. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 1(6): 30-35.

Gomes, R.C. (2000). “Seismic behaviour of tunnels under seismic load”. MSc thesis, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon [in Portuguese].

Gomes, R.C. (2013). “Effect of stress disturbance induced by construction on the seismic response of shallow bored tunnel”. Computer and Geotechnics, 49:338-351.

Grange, S. (2008). « Risque sismique: stratégie de modélisation pour simuler la réponse des structures en béton et leurs interactions avec le sol ». Ph.D dissertation, INPG. (in French).

Hashash, Y.M.A., Park, D. and Yao, J.I.C. (2005). “Ovaling deformations of circular tunnels under seismic load, an update on seismic design and analysis of underground structures”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 20: 435-441.

Hashash, Y.M.A., Hook, J.J., Schmidt, B. and Yao, J.I.C. (2001). Seismic design and analysis of underground structures. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 16(4): 247-293.

He, C. and Koizumi, A. (2000). “Dynamic behaviour in transverse direction of shield tunnel with considering effect of segment joints”. 12WCEE2000, paper 0362.

Hung, C.J., Monsees, J., Munfah, N., Wisniewski, J. (2009). “Technical manual for design and construction of road tunnels - Civil elements”. Report N° FHWA-NHI-10-034.

Itasca Consulting Group. (2009). FLAC Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, Version 4.0. User’s manual. http://www.itascacg.com.

Kaneshiro, J. and Sinha, M. (2008). “Simplified seismic design approach using pushover considerations and ring compression theory for a concrete segmented liner”. World Tunnel Congress 2008 - Underground Facilities for Better Environment and Safety - India, 462-472.

Khoshnoudian, F. and Shahrour, I. (2002). “Numerical analysis of the seismic behaviour of tunnels constructed in liquefiable soils”. Journal Soils and Foundation, 42(6): 1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.42.6_1

Kontoe, S., Zdravkovic, L., Potts, D.M. and Menkiti, C.O. (2008). “Case study on seismic tunnel response”. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 45: 1743-1764.

Kramer, G.J., Sederat, H., Kozak, A., Liu, A. and Chai, J. (2007). “Seismic response of precast tunnel lining”. Proceedings of the Rapid Exacavation and Tunnelling Concference, 1225-1242.

Kuhlemeyer, R.L., and Lysmer, J. (1973). “Finite element method accuracy for wave propagation problems”. Journal of Soil Mech. & Foundations, Div. ASCE, 99(SM5): 421-427.

Lanzano, G., Bilotta, E., Russo, G., Silvestri, F., Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2010). “Dynamic centrifuge tests on shallow tunnel models in dry sand”. VII International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, Zurich. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/b10554-91

Lee, D.H., Choi, Y.T. and Kim, D.H. (2007). “A study on the seismic design methods for precast concrete lining (PCL)”. Underground Space - the 4th Dimension of Metropolises - Barták, Hrdina, Romancov & Zlámal (eds)© 2007, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-40807-3.

Lyngs, J.H. (2008). “Model accuracy in a seismic design of immersed tunnel”. Master of Science in Civil and Structural Engineering, The School of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.

Muir Wood, A. (1975). “The circular tunnel in elastic ground”. Géotechnique, 25(1) 115-127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1975.25.1.115

Naggar, H.E., Hinchberge, S.D., Hesham, M. and Naggar, E.I. (2008). “Simplified analysis of sesmic in-plane stresses in composite and jointed tunnel linings”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 28(12): 1063-1077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2007.12.001

Naggar, H.E. and Hinchberger, S.D. (2012). “Approximate evaluation of stresses in degraded tunnel linings”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 43: 45-57.

Nishida, M. and Matsui, T. (2004). “Applicability of seismic deformation method to aseismic analysis of underground linear structure”. Proceedings of the 14th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Toulon, France.

Pakbaz, M.C. and Yareevand, A. (2005). “2-D analysis of circular tunnel against earthquake loading”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 20: 411-417.

Park, K.H., Tantayopin, K., Tontavanich, B. and Owatsiriwong, A. (2009). “Analytical solution for seismic-induced ovaling of circular tunnel lining under no-slip interface conditions: A revisit”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 24: 231-235.

Park, K.H., Tantayopin, K. and Tontavanich, B. (2006). “Analytical solutions for seismic design of tunnel lining in Bangkok MRT Subway”. International Symposium on Underground Excavation and Tunnelling 2-4 February, Bangkok, Thailand.

Penzien, J. and Wu, C.L. (1998). “Stresses in linings of bored tunnels”. Int. J. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dynamics, 27: 283-300.

Penzien, Z. (2000). “Seismically induced racking of tunnel linings”. Int. J. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dynamic, 29: 683-691.

Power, M., Fishman, K., Richards R., Makdisi F., Musser, S. and Leslie Youd, T. (2004). “Seismic retrofitting manual for Highway Structures: Part 2 - Retaining Structures, Slopes, Tunnels, Culverts, and Roadways”. Report No. FHWA-HRT-05-067.

Romero, V.S. and Caufield, R.J. (2012). “Improving the seismic resilience of lifeline tunnels”. Conference NZSEE 2012, paper number 064.

Sederat, H., Kozak, A., Hashash, Y.M.A., Shamsabadi, A. and Krimotat, A. (2009). “Contact interface in seismic analysis of circular tunnels”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 24: 482-490.

Shahrour, I., Khoshnoudian, F., Sadek, M. and Mroueh, H. (2010). “Elastoplastic analysis of the seismic response of tunnels in soft soils”. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 25: 478-482.

Sliteen, L. (2013). “Modélisation Tridimensionnelle du comportement sismique des tunnels en terrain meuble”. Ph.D. dissertation, Université Lille1 Sciences et Technologies. (in French).

Sliteen, L, Mroueh, H, Sadek, M. (2013). “Three-dimensional modeling of the behaviour of shallow tunnel under seismic load”. 20ème Congrès Francais de Méchanique (CFM2011).

Van Oorsouw, R.S. (2010). “Behaviour of segment joints in immersed tunnels under seismic load”. Master thesis, Delft University of Technology.

Wang, J.N. (1993). “Seismic design of tunnels: A state-of-the-art approach”. Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas Inc., New York.

Published
2014-09-30
How to Cite
Do, N. A., Dias, D., & Oreste, P. (2014). 2D seismic numerical analysis of segmental tunnel lining behaviour. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 47(3), 206-216. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.47.3.206-216
Section
Articles