Design recommendations to prevent global out-of-plane instability of rectangular reinforced concrete ductile walls
Observations of out-of-plane (OOP) instability in the 2010 Chile earthquake and in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake resulted in concerns about the current design provisions of structural walls. This mode of failure was previously observed in the experimental response of some wall specimens subjected to in-plane loading. Therefore, the postulations proposed for prediction of the limit states corresponding to OOP instability of rectangular walls are generally based on stability analysis under in-plane loading only. These approaches address stability of a cracked wall section when subjected to compression, thereby considering the level of residual strain developed in the reinforcement as the parameter that prevents timely crack closure of the wall section and induces stability failure. The New Zealand code requirements addressing the OOP instability of structural walls are based on the assumptions used in the literature and the analytical methods proposed for mathematical determination of the critical strain values. In this study, a parametric study is conducted using a numerical model capable of simulating OOP instability of rectangular walls to evaluate sensitivity of the OOP response of rectangular walls to variation of different parameters identified to be governing this failure mechanism. The effects of wall slenderness (unsupported height-to-thickness) ratio, longitudinal reinforcement ratio of the boundary regions and length on the OOP response of walls are evaluated. A clear trend was observed regarding the influence of these parameters on the initiation of OOP displacement, based on which simple equations are proposed for prediction of OOP instability in rectangular walls.
Sritharan S, Beyer K, Henry RS, Chai Y, Kowalsky M and Bull D (2014). "Understanding poor seismic performance of concrete walls and design implications". Earthquake Spectra, 30(1): 307-334. https://doi.org/10.1193/021713EQS036M DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/021713EQS036M
Paulay T and Goodsir W (1985). "The ductility of structural walls". Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 18(3): 250-269. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.18.3.250-269 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.18.3.250-269
Paulay T and Priestley M (1993). "Stability of ductile structural walls". ACI Structural Journal, 90(4): 385-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/3958
NZS3101. (2006). "Concrete Structures Standard, NZS 3101:2006 Parts 1&2 ", Standards New Zealand.
Chai YH and Elayer DT (1999). "Lateral stability of reinforced concrete columns under axial reversed cyclic tension and compression". ACI Structural Journal, 96(5): 780-789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/732
Acevedo CE, Creagh A, Moehle J, Hassan W and Tanyeri A (2010). "Seismic Vulnerability of Non-special Boundary Element of Shear Wall under Axial Force Reversals". Florida International University and University of California Berkeley, USA.
Creagh A, Acevedo C, Moehle J, Hassan W and Tanyeri AC (2010). "Seismic Performance of Concrete Special Boundary Element". University of Texas at Austin and University of California Berkley, USA.
Chrysanidis T and Tegos I (2012). "The influence of tension strain of wall ends to their resistance against lateral instability for low-reinforced concrete walls". 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal.
Hilson C, Segura C and Wallace J (2014). "Experimental study of longitudinal reinforcement buckling in reinforced concrete structural wall boundary elements". Tenth US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (10NCEE), Anchorage, Alaska.
Taleb R, Tani M and Kono S (2016). "Performance of confined boundary regions of RC walls under cyclic reversal loadings". Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 14(4): 108-124. https://doi.org/10.3151/jact.14.108 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3151/jact.14.108
Welt TS, Massone LM, LaFave JM, Lehman DE, McCabe SL and Polanco P (2016). "Confinement behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete prisms simulating wall boundary elements". Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(4): 04016204. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001682 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001682
Haro AG, Kowalsky M, Chai Y and Lucier GW (2018). "Boundary elements of special reinforced concrete walls tested under different loading paths". Earthquake Spectra, 34(3): 1267-1288. https://doi.org/10.1193/081617EQS160M DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/081617EQS160M
Rosso A, Jiménez-Roa LA, De Almeida JP, Zuniga APG, Blandón CA, Bonett RL and Beyer K (2018). "Cyclic tensile-compressive tests on thin concrete boundary elements with a single layer of reinforcement prone to out-of-plane instability". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(2): 859-887. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0228-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0228-1
Rosso A, Almeida JP and Beyer K (2016). "Stability of thin reinforced concrete walls under cyclic loads: state-of-the-art and new experimental findings". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(2): 455-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9827-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9827-x
Oesterle R, Fiorato A, Johal L, Carpenter J, Russell H and Corley W (1976). "Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls: Tests of Isolated Walls". PCA Serial No. Report 1571, Research and Development Construction Technology Laboratories, Portland Cement Association.
Goodsir WJ (1985). "The Design of Coupled Frame-Wall Structures for Seismic Actions". PhD Dissertation, University of Canterbury. http://dx.doi.org/10.26021/2876
Thomsen IV JH and Wallace JW (1995). "Displacement-based design of reinforced concrete structural walls: An experimental investigation of walls with rectangular and T-shaped cross-sections". Report No. CU/CEE-95-06, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY.
Johnson B (2010). "Anchorage detailing effects on lateral deformation components of R/C shear walls". Master Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Rosso A, Almeida JP and Beyer K (2014). "Short report on the experimental cyclic test of a thin RC wall (TW1) for blind prediction purposes". Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL).
Almeida J, Prodan O, Rosso A and Beyer K (2017). "Tests on thin reinforced concrete walls subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane cyclic loading". Earthquake Spectra, 33(1): 323-345. https://doi.org/10.1193/101915eqs154dp DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/101915eqs154dp
Rosso A, Jiménez-Roa LA, Almeida JPD and Beyer K (2020). "Instability of thin concrete walls with a single layer of reinforcement under cyclic loading: Numerical simulation and improved equivalent boundary element model for assessment". Journal of Earthquake Engineering: 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2019.1691679 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2019.1691679
Menegon S, Wilson J, Gad E and Lam N (2015). "Out-of-plane buckling of limited ductile reinforced concrete walls under cyclic loads". NZSEE Annual Connference, Rotorua, New Zealand.
DIANA T (2011). "Finite Element Analysis User's Manual - Release 9.4.4", TNO DIANA.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2014). "Simulation of out-of-plane instability in rectangular RC structural walls". Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul, Turkey.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2017). "Numerical modeling of rectangular reinforced concrete structural walls". Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(6): 04017031. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001729 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001729
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2018). "Validation of a numerical model for prediction of out-of-plane instability in ductile structural walls under concentric in-plane cyclic loading". Journal of Structural Engineering, 144(6): 04018039. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002013
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2018). "Blind prediction of in-plane and out-of-plane responses for a thin singly reinforced concrete flanged wall specimen". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(1): 427-458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0211-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0211-x
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2019). "A parametric investigation on applicability of the curved shell finite element model to nonlinear response prediction of planar RC walls". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 17(12): 6515-6546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00582-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00582-8
Kolozvari K, Biscombe L, Dashti F, Dhakal RP, Gogus A, Gullu MF, Henry RS, Massone LM, Orakcal K, Rojas F, Shegay A and Wallace J (2019). "State-of-the-art in nonlinear finite element modeling of isolated planar reinforced concrete walls". Engineering Structures, 194: 46-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.04.097 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.04.097
Dashti F, Dhakal R and Pampanin S (2014). "Numerical simulation of shear wall failure mechanisms". Annual Conference of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2020). "A parametric study on out-of-plane instability of doubly reinforced structural walls. Part I: FEM predictions". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 18(6): 3747-3780. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00828-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00828-w
Dashti F (2017). "Out-of-plane Instability of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls Under In-plane Loading". PhD Thesis, Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, 294pp.
Dashti F, Dhakal R and Pampanin S (2017). "An experimental study on out-of-plane deformations of rectangular structural walls subject to in-plane loading". Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2017). "Tests on slender ductile structural walls designed according to New Zealand standard". Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(4): 504-516. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.4.504-516 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.4.504-516
Dashti F, Tripathi M, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2020). "A parametric study on out-of-plane instability of doubly reinforced structural walls. Part II: Experimental investigation". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 18(11): 5193-5220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00898-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00898-w
Dashti F, Dhakal R and Pampanin S (2017). "Evaluation of New Zealand code requirements related to instability failure of structural walls". Annual Conference of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Wellington, New Zealand.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2018). "Evolution of out‐of‐plane deformation and subsequent instability in rectangular RC walls under in‐plane cyclic loading: Experimental observation". Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 47(15): 2944-2964. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3115
Dashti F, Dhakal R and Pampanin S (2020). "Out-of-plane response of in-plane-loaded ductile structural walls: State-of-the-art and classification of the observed mechanisms". Journal of Earthquake Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1713928 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1713928
Dashti F, Dhakal R and Pampanin S (2018). "Local vs global instability of ductile structural walls". Annual Conference of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S. (2018). "Inelastic strain gradients in reinforced concrete structural walls". 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Tripathi M, Dhakal RP and Dashti F (2020). "Nonlinear cyclic behaviour of high-strength ductile RC walls: Experimental and numerical investigations". Engineering Structures. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111116 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111116
NZS3101:2006 (2017). "Concrete Structures Standard, Parts 1&2 (Amendment No. 3)". Standards New Zealand.
Tripathi M, Dhakal RP, Dashti F and Gokhale R (2020). "Axial response of rectangular RC prisms representing the boundary elements of ductile concrete walls". Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 18: 4387–4420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00868-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00868-2
Elwood KJ (2013). "Performance of concrete buildings in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and implications for Canadian codes". Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 40(3): 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2011-0564 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2011-0564
Wallace J (2012). "Behavior, design, and modeling of structural walls and coupling beams — Lessons from recent laboratory tests and earthquakes". International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 6(1): 3-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40069-012-0001-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40069-012-0001-4
Thomsen IV JH and Wallace JW (2004). "Displacement-based design of slender reinforced concrete structural walls-experimental verification". Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(4): 618-630. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:4(618) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:4(618)