Material properties of existing unreinforced clay brick masonry buildings in New Zealand
The material properties of New Zealand’s heritage clay brick unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings were investigated and are reported herein. Material data was collected from a total of 98 New Zealand clay brick URM buildings and a database was compiled that was comprised of various masonry material properties. The intention behind the reporting of information and data presented herein was to provide indicative values to the professional engineering community to aid as preliminary input when undertaking detailed building assessments for cases where in-situ testing and brick and mortar sample extraction are not feasible. The data presented is also used to support the relationships for URM material properties that have been recommended by the authors for incorporation into the next version of the NZSEE seismic assessment guidelines for URM buildings. Although researchers from Europe, USA, India and Australia have previously studied the material properties of clay brick unreinforced masonry, knowledge on New Zealand URM material properties was poor at the time the study commenced. Therefore, a research programme was undertaken that was focused on both in-situ testing and laboratory testing of samples extracted from existing New Zealand clay brick URM buildings.
Drysdale, R., Hamid, A., Baker, L. (1999). ‘Masonry Structures: Behaviour and Design’, The Masonry Society, Boulder, Colorado, United States.
Megget, L. (2006). ‘From brittle to ductile: 75 years of seismic design in New Zealand’, Bulletin of The New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 39(3): 158-169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.39.3.158-169
Paulay, T., Priestley, M.J.N. (1992). ‘Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings’, John Wiley & Sons, New York, United States. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470172841
Moon, L., Dizhur, D., Senaldi, I., Derakhshan, H., Griffith, M., Magenes, G., Ingham, J. (2014). ‘The demise of the URM building stock in Christchurch during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence’, Earthquake Spectra, 30(1): 253-276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/022113EQS044M
Dizhur, D., Ingham, J. M., Moon, L., Griffith, M.C., Schultz, A., Senaldi, I., Magenes, G., Dickie, J., Lissel, S., Centeno, J., Ventura, C., Leite, J., Lourenco, P. (2011). ‘Performance of masonry buildings and churches in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake’, Bulletin of New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(4): 279-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.279-296
Dizhur, D., Ismail, N., Knox, C. Lumantarna, R. Ingham, J.M. (2010). ‘Performance of unreinforced and retrofitted masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield earthquake’, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4): 321-339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.4.321-339
Russell, A. (2010). ‘Characterisation and seismic assessment of unreinforced masonry buildings’, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Basoenondo, E.A. (2008). ‘Lateral load response of Cikarang brickwall structures: An experimental study’, Doctoral Dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
Deodhar, S.V. (2000). ‘Strength of brick masonry prisms in compression’, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), 81(3): 133-137.
Gumaste, K.S., Nanjunda Rao, K.S., Venkatarama Reddy, B.V., Jagadish, K.S. (2006). ‘Strength and elasticity of brick masonry prisms and wallettes under compression’, Materials and Structures, 40(2): 241-253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-006-9141-9
Kaushik, H. B., Rai, D. C., Jain, S. K. (2007a). ‘Stress-strain characteristics of clay brick masonry under uniaxial compression’, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19(9): 728-738. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2007)19:9(728)
Darayatnam, P. (1987). ‘Brick and reinforced brick structures’, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, India.
NZSEE (2006). ‘Assessment and improvement of the structural performance of buildings in earthquakes’, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Wellington, New Zealand.
Lumantarna, R. (2012). ‘Material characterisation of New Zealand's clay brick unreinforced masonry buildings’, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Brozovsky, J., Zach, J. (2007). ‘Non-destructive testing of solid brick compression strength in structures’, IV Conferencia Panamericana de END, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October.
Brozovsky, J., Zach, J., Brozovsky Jr., J. (2008). ‘Determining the strength of solid burnt bricks in historical structures’, 9th International Conference on NDT of Art, Jerusalem, Israel 25 -30 May.
Tabor, D. (1956). ‘The physical meaning of indentation and scratch hardness’, British Journal of Applied Physics, 7(5): 159-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0508-3443/7/5/301
Shalabi, F.I., Cording, E.J., Al-Hattamleh, O.H. (2007). ‘Estimation of rock engineering properties using hardness tests’, Engineering Geology, 90(3-4): 138-147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.12.006
Magalhães, A., Veiga, R. (2009). ‘Physical and mechanical characterisation of historic mortars: Application to the evaluation of the state of conservation’, Materiales de Construccion, 59(295): 61-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2009.41907
Válek, J., Veiga, R. (2005). ‘Characterisation of mechanical properties of historic mortars - testing of irregular samples’, Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture XI, Malta, 22 -24 June.
Drdácký, M., Mašín, D., Mekonone, M.D., Slížková, Z. (2008). ‘Compression tests on non-standard historic mortar specimens’, Historical Mortar Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 24 -26 September.
Biggs, D., Forsberg, T. (2001). ‘Field techniques for mortar replication’, 9th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Fredericton, Canada, June.
Moriconi, G., Castellano, M.G., Collepardi, M. (1994). ‘Mortar deterioration of the masonry walls in historic buildings. A case history: Vanvitelli's Mole in Ancona’, Materials and Structures, 27(7): 408-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02473445
Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Bisbikou, K. (1995). ‘Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques’, Thermochimica Acta, 269-270: 779-795. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(95)02571-5
Sabbioni, C., Zappia, G., Riontino, C., Blanco-Varela, M.T., Aguilera, J., Puertas, F., Van Balen, K., Toumbakari, E.E. (2001). ‘Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars’, Atmospheric Environment, 35(3): 539-548. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00310-1
Sarangapani, G., Venkatarama Reddy, B.V., Jagadish, K.S. (2005). ‘Brick-mortar bond and masonry compressive strength’, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 17(2): 229-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2005)17:2(229)
Venu Madhava Rao, K., Venkatarama Reddy, B. V., Jagadish, K. S. (1996). ‘Flexural bond strength of masonry using various blocks and mortars’, Materials and Structures, 29(2): 119-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02486202
Kaushik, H. B., Rai, D. C., Jain, S. K. (2007b). ‘Uniaxial compressive stress-strain model for clay brick masonry’, Current Science, 92(4): 497-501.
Ispir, M., Demir, C., Ilki, A., Kumbasar, N. (2010). ‘Material characterization of the historical unreinforced masonry Akaretler row houses in Istanbul’, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 22(7): 702-713. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000071
CEN (2005). ‘Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures -Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures’, EN 1996-1-1:2005, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
ASTM (2003). ‘Standard test method for compressive strength of masonry prisms’, C 1314-03b, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
MSJC (2002). ‘Building code requirements for masonry structures, ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02’, America Concrete Institute, Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, The Masonry Society, Detroit, Michigan, United States.
FEMA (1999). ‘Evaluation of earthquake damaged concrete and masonry wall buildings, basic procedures manual, ATC-43’, FEMA 306, Federal Emergency Management Agency, California, United States.
CSA (2004). ‘Design of masonry structures, S304.1’, Canadian Standards Association, Ontario, Canada.
Groot, C. (1993). ‘Effects of water on mortar brick bond’, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Delft, Delft, Netherlands.
Lawrence, S. J., Cao, H. T. (1987). ‘An experimental study of the interface between brick and mortar’, Proc., The 4th North American Masonry Conference, Los Angeles, California, United States, August, 1-14.
Sugo, H. O., Page, A. W., Lawrence, S. J. (2001). ‘The development of mortar/unit bond’, The 9th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 4 - 6 June.
Grenley, D. G. (1969). ‘Study of the effect of certain modified mortars on compressive strength and flexural strength of masonry’, Designing, engineering, and constructing with Masonry Products, F. B. Johnson, ed., Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, United States, 28-33.
Samarasinghe, W., Lawrence, S. J. (1992). ‘Effect of high suction rate in low strength bricks on brick mortar bond’, Proc., The 4th International Seminar on Structural Masonry for Developing Countries, Madras, India, December, 43-50.
Pavia, S., Hanley, R. (2010). ‘Flexural bond strength of natural hydraulic lime mortar and clay brick’, Materials and Structures, 43(7): 913-922. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-009-9555-2
Venkatarama Reddy, B. V. and Gupta, A. (2006). ‘Tensile bond strength of soil cement block masonry couplets using cement-soil mortars’, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(1): 36-45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2006)18:1(36)
ASTM (2003a). ‘Standard test methods for sampling and testing brick and structural clay tile’, C 67 - 03a, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
ASTM (2008a). ‘Standard specification for mortar for unit masonry’, C 270 - 08a, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
Standards Australia (2001). ‘Appendix D: Method of test for flexural strength’, AS 3700 - 2001, Standards Australia, Homebush, New South Wales, Australia.
ASTM (2000). ‘Standard test method for measurement of masonry flexural bond strength’, C 1072 -00a, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
ASTM (2003b). ‘Standard test methods for in situ measurement of masonry mortar joint shear strength index’, C 1531 - 03, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
Rilem (1996). ‘MS-B.4 Determination of shear strength index for masonry unit/mortar junction’, Materials and Structures, 29(8): 459-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02486276
Lourenço, P. B., Barros, J. O., Oliveira, J. T. (2004). ‘Shear testing of stack bonded masonry’, Construction and Building Materials, 18(2): 125-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2003.08.018
Institute of Statistics and Mathematics (2010). ‘The R project for statistical computing’, Institute of Statistics and Mathematics, Vienna, Austria.
Peck, R., Olsen, C., Devore, J. L. (2009). ‘Introduction to statistics and data analysis’, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, Belmont, California, United States.
Chi, Y. (2014). ‘R-tutorial, an R introduction to statistics’, http://www.r-tutor.com/elementary-statistics/non-parametric-methods/kruskal-wallis-test.
Oakdale Engineering (2010). ‘DataFit 9.0’, Oakdale Engineering, Oakdale, United States. http://www.oakdaleengr.com/.
Copyright (c) 2014 Nasser Almesfer, Dmytro Y. Dizhur, Ronald Lumantarna, Jason M. Ingham
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.