Geometric characterisation and out-of-plane seismic stability of low-rise unreinforced brick masonry buildings in Auckland, New Zealand

  • Kevin Q. Walsh University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Dmytro Y. Dizhur University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Nasser Almesfer University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Patrick A. Cummuskey Auckland Council, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Jim Cousins GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Hossein Derakhshan University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1859-4700
  • Michael C. Griffith University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9010-3764
  • Jason M. Ingham University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0989-9097

Abstract

The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes and corresponding Royal Commission reports have resulted in changes to the legislative environment and led to increased public awareness in New Zealand of the earthquake performance of unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings. As a result, building regulators, owners, tenants, users and heritage stakeholders will be facing a unique challenge in the near future where assessments, improvements and demolitions of URM buildings are expected to occur at an unusually high rate. Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand and because of the relative prosperity of Auckland during the period 1880-1935 when most URM buildings were being constructed in New Zealand, the city has the largest number of URM buildings in the country. Identifying those buildings most at seismic risk in Auckland’s large and varied building stock has warranted a rapid field assessment program supplemented by strategically chosen detailed assessments. Information that can be procured through rapid field inspections includes the building geometric typologies (e.g., heights, building footprint geometry and isolated versus row configuration), elevation type (e.g., perforated frame versus solid wall), wall construction (e.g., solid versus cavity, number of leaves) and basic construction material type (e.g., clay brick versus stone). Furthermore, investigation into the architectural history, heritage status and functional usage of Auckland’s URM buildings will affect the direction of retrofit strategies and priorities. As the owner of a large and varied portfolio of URM buildings as well as the local organisation responsible for assessing building safety, Auckland Council is developing exemplar inspection, assessment, prioritisation and retrofit strategies that will target the seismic risks associated with URM buildings, in particular, so as to preserve and enhance safety and the economic and community value of these special buildings. Collaboration amongst Auckland Council, The University of Auckland and GNS Science has resulted in a state-of-the-art rapid quantitative assessment program applied to a sampling of typologically representative URM buildings in Auckland.

References

Walsh, K. and Ingham, J. (2013). “The Earthquake Hazard Posed by Auckland’s Unreinforced Masonry Building Stock”. 12th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Vancouver, BC, 2-5 June.

Monitor Auckland (2012). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Average Annual Change, Auckland Council. Last updated: 20 January 2012. Retrieved: 12 December 2012. http://monitorauckland.arc.govt.nz/MonitorAuckland/index.cfm?242A576B-1279-D5EC-EDD1-A4B81624B46D.

Statistics New Zealand. (2006). “2006 Census, QuickStats About Auckland Region.” Retrieved 12 December 2012. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CesusHomePage/QuickStats/AboutAPlace/SnapShot.aspx?id=1000002&type=region&ParentID=1000002.

Cousins, J. (2005). “Estimated damage and casualties from earthquakes affecting Auckland City: a report prepared for the Auckland City Council.” Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (GNS, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.

Ingham, J. and Griffith, M. (2011). “The Performance of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in the 2010/2011 Canterbury Earthquake Swarm”. Report to the Royal Commission of Inquiry. http://canterbury.royalcommission.govt.nz/documents-by-key/20110920.46.

Ingham, J. and Griffith, M. (2011). “The Performance of Earthquake Strengthened URM Buildings in the Christchuch CBD in the 22 February 2011 Earthquake,” Report to the Royal Commission of Inquiry. http://canterbury.royalcommission.govt.nz/documents-by-key/20111026.569.

Cooper, M., Carter, R. and Fenwick, R. (2012). “Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission (CERC) Final Report Volumes 1-7”. Christchurch, New Zealand. http://canterbury.royalcommission.govt.nz.

Davey, R. and Blaikie, E. (2010). “Predicted and observed performance of masonry parapets in the 2007 Gisborne earthquake.” Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.

Ingham, J. and Griffith, M. (2011). “Performance of unreinforced masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield (Christchurch, NZ) earthquake”. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 11(3): 207-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2010.11465067

New Zealand Parliament. (2004). “Building Act 2004”. Department of Building and Housing – Te Tari Kaupapa Whare, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand Government, Wellington, New Zealand.

Auckland Council. (2011). “Earthquake-Prone, Dangerous & Insanitary Buildings Policy (2011-2016)”. Adopted by Auckland Council, 24 November 2011, Auckland, New Zealand.

NZSEE. (2006). “NZSEE: Assessment and improvement of the structural performance of buildings in earthquakes, recommendations of a NZSEE study group on earthquake risk of buildings”. Incorp. corrigenda nos. 1 & 2. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE), Wellington, New Zealand.

Russell, A. and Ingham, J. (2010). “Prelavance of New Zealand’s Unreinforced Masonry Buildings.” Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(3): 182-201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.3.182-201

Global Earthquake Model (2013). “GEM Building Taxonomy v2.0: An Overview.” Retrieved: 25 December 2013, Global Earthquake Model. http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-building-taxonomy/overview

RiskScape (2010). “RiskScape User Manual, Ver. 0.2.30”. GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand.

Uma, S., Bothara, J., Jury, R. and King, A. (2008). “Performance Assessment of Existing Buildings in New Zealand.” Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Wairakei, New Zealand.

Fenwick, R. and and MacRae, G. (2009). “Comparison of New Zealand Standards Used for Seismic Design of Concrete Buildings.” Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 42(3): 187-203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.42.3.187-203

Walsh, K., Cummuskey, P., Dizhur, D. and Ingham, J. (2014). “Structural seismic attributes of Auckland’s commercial building stock”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.

NZSS (1965). “1900:1965, Model Building By-Law, Chapter 8: Basic Design Loads”. New Zealand Standards Institute, Wellington, New Zealand.

Charleson, A. (2011). “Review of Existing Structural Taxonomies”. Global Earthquake Model. http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-building-taxonomy/posts/review-of-existing-structural-taxonomies.

NZS (2002). “NZS 1170.0:2002: Structural design actions, Part 0: General principles”. Incorp. Amends. 1-5. Australian Standards (AS) and Standards New Zealand (NZS) Joint Technical Committee BD-006, Wellington, New Zealand.

Lindeburg, M. and McMullin, K. (2008). “Seismic Design of Building Structures”. 9th ed. Professional Publications, Inc. (PPI), Belmont, California, United States.

Vaculik, J. (2012). “Unreinforced Masonry Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Seismic Actions”. Doctoral Thesis, University of Adelaide, Aldelaide, Australia. http://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/

Derakhshan, H., Griffith, M. and Ingham, J. (2013). “Out-of-plane behaviour of one-way spanning URM walls”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 139(4): 409-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000347

Derakhshan, H., Dizhur, D.Y., Griffith, M.C. and Ingham, J.M. (2014). “Seismic Assessment of out-of-plane loaded unreinforced masonry walls in multi-story buildings”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 47(2), pp119-138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.47.2.119-138

Tasligedik, A., Pampanin, S. and Palermo, A. (2011). “Damage Mitigation Strategies of ‘Non-Structural’ Infill Walls: Concept and Numerical-Experimental Validation Program”. Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, Paper Number 120, Auckland, New Zealand, 14-16 April.

Ismail, N. and Ingham, J. (2012a). “In-situ and laboratory based out-of-plane testing of unreinforced clay brick masonry walls strengthened using near surface mounted twisted steel bars”. Construction and Building Materials, 36(11): 119-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.087

Ismail, N. and Ingham, J. (2012b). “Cyclic out-of-plane behaviour of slender masonry walls seismically strengthened using posttensioning”. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 138(10): 1255-1266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000565

Dizhur, D., Griffith, M. and Ingham, J. (2014). “Out-of-plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer strips”. Engineering Structures, 59(2): 330-343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.10.026

AS 3700-2011 (2011). Australian Standard for Masonry Structures. Standards Australia, Committee BD-004, Sydney, NSW.

O’Connor, J. (1919). Courtville Apartments Architectural Specifications. Auckland, New Zealand.

Lumantarna, R., Biggs, D. and Ingham, J. (2014). ”Compressive, Flexural Bond and Shear Bond Strengths of In Situ New Zealand Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Constructed Using Lime Mortar between the 1880s and 1940s.” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 26(4), 559–566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000685

Lumantarna, R., Biggs, D. and Ingham, J. (2014). ”Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Field-Extracted and Laboratory-Constructed Masonry Prisms.” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 26(4), 567–575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000731

NZS (2004). “NZS 1170.5:2004: Structural design actions, Part 5: Earthquake actions – New Zealand”. Standards New Zealand (NZS) Technical Committee BD-006-04-11, Wellington, New Zealand.

Oyarzo-Vera, C., McVerry, G. and Ingham, J. (2012). “Seismic Zonation and Default Suite of Ground-Motion Records for Time-History Analysis in the North Island of New Zealand”. Earthquake Spectra, 28(2):667–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.4000016

Griffith, M.C. and Vaculik, J. (2007). “Out-of-Plane Flexural Strength of Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Walls”. The Masonry Society Journal, September: 53-68.

Think Brick Australia (2013). Manual 4: Design of clay Masonry for Wind and Earthquake. Artarmon, NSW, Australia. http://www.thinkbrick.com.au/technical-manuals-4?start=0#maincontent

Almesfer, N., Dizhur, D.Y., Lumantarna, R. and Ingham, J. (2014). “Material Properties of Existing Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Buildings in New Zealand”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 47(2), pp75-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.47.2.75-96

Russell, A.P. (2010). Characterisation and Seismic Assessment of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings, Doctoral Thesis, University of Auckland, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/6038

Stirling, M., McVerry, G. and Berryman, K. (2002). “A new seismic hazard model for New Zealand”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92:1878-1903.

Christophersen, A., Gerstenberger, M., Rhoades, D., Stirling, M. (2011). “Quantifying the effect of declustering on probabilistic seismic hazard”. In Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, Auckland, New Zealand, April 14-16.

Stirling, M., McVerry, G., Gerstenberger, M., Litchfield, N., Van Dissen, R., Berryman, K., Barnes, P., Wallace, L., Villamor, P., Langridge, R., Lamarche, G., Nodder, S., Reyners, M., Bradley, B., Rhoades, D., Smith, W., Nicol, A., Pettinga, J., Clark, K. and Jacobs, K. (2012). “National Seismic Hazard Model for New Zealand: 2010 Update”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 102(4): 1514-1542. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120110170

New Zealand Parliament (1992). “Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, Date of assent: 27 October 1992.” Department of Labour, New Zealand Government, Wellington, New Zealand.

Au, E., Lomax, W., Walker, A., Banks, G., Haverland, G. (2013). “A Discussion on the Differences between New Zealand’s Philosophy for the Seismic Design of New Buildings and Seismic Assessment of Existing Buildings and the Issues that Arise”. Proc. of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 26-28 April 2013.

Shelton, R.H. (2004). “Seismic response of buildings parts and non-structural components.” Study report, no. 124. BRANZ, Porirua City 5381, New Zealand. ISSN: 0113-3675.

Wise, D.J., Cassidy, J. and Locke, C.A. (2003). “Geophysical imaging of the Quaternary Wairoa North Fault, New Zealand: A case study”. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 53(1): 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-9851(03)00013-2

Published
2014-06-30
How to Cite
Walsh, K. Q., Dizhur, D. Y., Almesfer, N., Cummuskey, P. A., Cousins, J., Derakhshan, H., Griffith, M. C., & Ingham, J. M. (2014). Geometric characterisation and out-of-plane seismic stability of low-rise unreinforced brick masonry buildings in Auckland, New Zealand . Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 47(2), 139-156. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.47.2.139-156
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>