General observations of building behaviour during the 8th October 2005 Pakistan earthquake

Authors

  • Jitendra K. Bothara Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner Ltd, Wellington, New Zealand
  • Kubilây M O Hiçyılmaz Ove Arup & Partners, Dubai, U.A.E

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.41.4.209-233

Abstract

The paper presents the authors’ observations on the performance of buildings during the 8th October 2005, Kashmir earthquake in parts of Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and the North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. A majority of the buildings in the earthquake region were non-engineered, owner-built, loadbearing masonry or reinforced concrete framed structures. Most of the masonry buildings were built with random or semi-dressed stone-walls without any reinforcement. The reinforced concrete frame buildings were deficient in strength, lacked ductile detailing and were poorly constructed. A large number of such buildings collapsed, leading to widespread destruction and loss of life. The building damage was the main cause behind the human and property loss. The collapse of floor and roof structures, the brittle behaviour of concrete buildings, a lack of integrity in masonry structures, and a lack of incorporation of seismically resistant features in building structures are found to be main reasons for the catastrophe.

References

Ambraseys, N. N., Douglas J., Sarma and Smith P. M. (2004). “Equation for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data from Europe and the Middle East: Horizontal peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 3. pp 1-53.

Bilham, R. (2005). “The Kashmir Earthquake”, http://cires.colorado.edu/~bilham/Kashmir%202005.htm

Bilham, R., Gaur, V. K. and Molnar, P. (2001). “Himalayan Seismic Hazard”, Science, 293, pp 1442-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1062584

Bilham, R., Wallace, K. (2005). “Future Mw > 8 earthquakes in the Himalaya: implications from the 26 Dec 2004 Mw = 9.0 earthquake on India's eastern plate margin”, Geological Survey India, Supplement Pub. 85. pp 1-14.

ERRA, (2006). “Strategy Document Rural Housing Construction, Building Back Better: Rural Housing Reconstruction strategy of Earthquake hit districts in NWFP and AJK, Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority, Pakistan”, www.erra.gov.pk/report/Rural%20Housing%20final%20strategy-20%20Apr%202006

Jain, S. K. (2006). “The Road to Seismic Safety in the Subcontinent”, International Conference on 8 October 2005 Earthquake in Pakistan: Its Implications & Hazard Mitigation 18-19 January 2006, Islamabad

Langenbach, R, (2008). “Don’t Tear it Down”, (Manuscript), www.conservationtech.com

Langenbach, R. (2005). “Survey report on North Kashmir Earthquake of October 8, 2005, from the Indian Kashmir side of the line of control”, www.conservationtech.com

Mumtaz H., Mughal S. H. Stephenson M., Bothara J. K., (2008). “The Challenges of Reconstruction after the October 2005 Kashmir Earthquake”, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp 68-82.

Mahajan, A. K., Kumar N and Aurora B. R. (2006). “Quick look isoseismal map of 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake”, Current Science, Vol. 91, No. 3, 10 August 2006.

Pararas-Carayannis, G. (2006). The earthquake of 8 October 2005 in Northern Pakistan, http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Earthquake2005Pakistan.html.

USGS. (2005). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:8oct05_sasia_quake_neic.jpg

Downloads

Published

31-12-2008

How to Cite

Bothara, J. K., & Hiçyılmaz, K. M. O. (2008). General observations of building behaviour during the 8th October 2005 Pakistan earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 41(4), 209–233. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.41.4.209-233

Issue

Section

Articles

Categories