General observations of building behaviour during the 8th October 2005 Pakistan earthquake
The paper presents the authors’ observations on the performance of buildings during the 8th October 2005, Kashmir earthquake in parts of Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and the North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. A majority of the buildings in the earthquake region were non-engineered, owner-built, loadbearing masonry or reinforced concrete framed structures. Most of the masonry buildings were built with random or semi-dressed stone-walls without any reinforcement. The reinforced concrete frame buildings were deficient in strength, lacked ductile detailing and were poorly constructed. A large number of such buildings collapsed, leading to widespread destruction and loss of life. The building damage was the main cause behind the human and property loss. The collapse of floor and roof structures, the brittle behaviour of concrete buildings, a lack of integrity in masonry structures, and a lack of incorporation of seismically resistant features in building structures are found to be main reasons for the catastrophe.
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