Pseudo-static analysis of piles in liquefiable soils
Parametric evaluation of liquefied layer properties
In this paper, pseudo-static analysis of piles in liquefying soils is applied to a case study of a bridge foundation. The response of piles is separately evaluated for the cyclic phase during the intense shaking and development of liquefaction, and for the subsequent lateral spreading phase. With regard to the considerable uncertainties involved in predicting liquefaction and lateral spreading phenomena the effects of key parameters influencing the pile response are examined through parametric analyses. Particular attention is given to the variation in stiffness and residual strength of the liquefied soil, the magnitude of lateral ground displacement and the magnitude of inertial loads from the superstructure. The results shed light on the relative importance of key parameters for different combination of loads and ground conditions, and allow comparative evaluation between loads on the pile exerted by the crust layer and the liquefied layer.
Architectural Institute of Japan. (2001). Recommendations for the Design of Building Foundations.
Chang, D., Boulanger, R. W., Brandenberg, S. J. and Kutter, B. L. (2005). "Dynamic analysis of soil-pile-structure interaction in laterally spreading ground during earthquake shaking." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication 145, 218-229.
Cubrinovski, M. and Ishihara, K. (2004). "Simplified method for analysis of piles undergoing lateral spreading in liquefied soils." Soils and Foundations, 44(5), 119-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.44.5_119
Cubrinovski, M. and Ishihara, K. (2006). "Assessment of pile group response to lateral spreading by single pile analysis." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication 145, 242-254.
Cubrinovski, M., Ishihara, K. and Kijima, T. (2001). "Effects of liquefaction on seismic response of a storage tank on pile foundations." Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics.
Cubrinovski, M., Ishihara, K. and Poulos, H. (2006a). "Psuedo static analysis of piles subjected to lateral spreading." NZ Workshop on Geotechnical Engineering, Christchurch 2006, 337-350.
Cubrinovski, M., Kokusho, T. and Ishihara, K. (2006b). "Interpretation from large-scale shake table tests on piles undergoing lateral spreading in liquefied soils." Soils Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 26, 275-286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.02.018
Dowrick, D. J., Berryman, K. R., McVerry, G. H. and Zhao, J. X. (1998). "Earthquake hazard in Christchurch." Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 31(1), 1-22.
Hamada, M. and O'Rourke, T. D. (1992). "Case studies of liquefaction and lifeline performance during past earthquakes." M. Hamada and T. D. O'Rourke, eds., National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, NY.
Hatanaka, M. and Uchida, A. (1996). "Empirical correlation between penetration resistance and internal friction angle of sandy soils." Soils and Foundations, 36(4), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.36.4_1
Idriss, I. M. and Boulanger, R. W. (2007). "SPT- and CPTBased relationships for the residual shear strength of liquefied soils." 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering – Invited Lectures, Thessaloniki, Greece. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5893-6_1
Ishihara, K. and Cubrinovski, M. (1998). "Performance of large-diameter piles subjected to lateral spreading of liquefied deposits." 13th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Taipei.
Ishihara, K. and Cubrinovski, M. (2004). "Case studies of pile foundations undergoing lateral spreading in liquefied deposits." Fifth International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, New York.
Ishihara, K., Yoshida, K. and Kato, M. (1997). "Characteristics of lateral spreading in liquefied deposits during the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake." Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 1(1), 23-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469708962360
Japanese Geotechnical Society. (1998). "Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17 1995 Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake."
Liao, S. and Whitman, R. V. (1986). "Overburden correction factors for SPT in sand." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering - ASCE, 112(3), 373-377. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1986)112:3(373)
Liyanapathirana, D. S. and Poulos, H. G. (2005). "Pseudostatic approach for seismic analysis of piles in liquefying soil." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131(12), 1480-1487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:12(1480)
O'Rourke, T. D., Meyersohn, W. D., Shiba, Y. and Chaudhuri, D. (1994). "Evaluation of pile response to liquefactioninduced lateral spread." Tech. Report NCEER-94-0026.
Olson, S. M. and Stark, T. D. (2002). "Liquefied strength ratio from liquefaction flow failure case histories." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39(3), 629-647. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/t02-001
Orense, R., Ishihara, K., Yasuda, S., Morimoto, I. and Takagi, M. (2000). "Soil spring constants during lateral flow of liquefied ground." 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Seed, H. B. (1987). "Design problems in soil liquefaction." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering - ASCE, 113(8), 827-845. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1987)113:8(827)
Seed, R. B. and Harder, L. F. (1990). "SPT based analysis of cyclic pore pressure generation and undrained residual strength." H. Bolton Seed Memorial Symposium Proceedings, 2, 351-376.
Stirling, M., Pettinga, J., Berryman, K. and Yetton, M. (2001). "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Canterbury region, New Zealand." Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 34(4), 318-334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.34.4.318-334
Tokimatsu, K. and Asaka, Y. (1998). "Effects of liquefaction induced ground displacements on pile performance in the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake." Soils and Foundations (Special Issue), 163-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.38.Special_163
Tokimatsu, K., Suzuki, H. and Sato, M. (2005). "Effects of inertial and kinematic interaction on seismic behavior of pile with embedded foundation." Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25(7-10), 753-762. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.11.018
Wang, S.-T. and Reese, L. C. (1998). "Design of pile foundations in liquefied soils." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 75, 1331-1343.
Yasuda, S. and Berrill, J. B. (2000). "Observations of the earthquake response of foundations in soil profiles containing saturated sands." GeoEng2000.
Youd, T. L., Hansen, C. M. and Bartlett, S. F. (2002). "Revised multilinear regression equations for prediction of lateral spread displacement." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 128(12), 1007-1017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2002)128:12(1007)
Youd, T. L., Idriss, I. M., Andrus, R. D., Arango, I., Castro, G., Christian, J. T., Dobry, R., Liam Finn, W. D., Harder L.F, Jr., Hynes, M. E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J. P., Liao, S. S. C., Marcuson III, W. F., Martin, G. R., Mitchell, J. K., Moriwaki, Y., Power, M. S., Robertson, P. K., Seed, R. B. and Stokoe II, K. H. (2001). "Liquefaction resistance of soils: Summary report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF workshops on evaluation of liquefaction resistance of soils." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(10), 817-833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:10(817)
Copyright (c) 2008 Hayden J. Bowen, Misko Cubrinovski
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.