Risk of casualties in New Zealand earthquakes
This paper reports on a study of all earthquakes that have caused (or could have caused) casualties in New Zealand in the period 1840 - 2003 inclusive. The intensity which has been the effective threshold for injuries is Modified Mercalli intensity VII (MM7). In the period of interest at least 73 earthquakes of magnitude Mw ≥ 5 have caused MM7 or greater in populated areas, and of these events 16 have caused direct casualties, 297 deaths and 640 hospitalized injured. The causes of the casualties are tabulated and discussed, and the potential to reduce casualties in the future is assessed, in particular in a large earthquake on the Wellington fault. Death rates have been determined empirically as functions of four types of structure and MM intensity.
Begg, R.C. (1931). "The great Napier earthquake of 1931". NZ Medical Journal 30: 93-109.
Biggs, A.C. (1931). "The earthquake al Napier, 3rd February, 1931, as it affected the Napier Hospital and the medical services of the district". NZ Medical Jnl 30: 84-92.
Callaghan, F.R. (1933). "The Hawke's Bay earthquake - General description". NZ Jnl of Science and Technology, XV: 3-38.
Conly. G. (1980). "The shock of 31 - The Hawke's Bay earthquake". A.W. and A.H. Reed, Wellington, New Zealand.
Crudgington, T. (1973). "Men as moles". NZ Listener, July 30, 16-17.
Downes. G.L. (1995). Atlas of isoseismal maps of New Zealand. Monograph 11, Institute of Geol and Nuc Sciences, Lower Hutt.
Downes, G.L. Dowrick, DJ., van Dissen, RJ., Taber, JJ., Hancox, G.T. and Smith, E.G.C. (2001). "The 1942 Wairarapa, New Zealand, earthquakes: analysis of observational and instrumental data". Bull NZ Soc for Earthq Eng 34(2): 125-57.
Downes, G.L.. Dowrick, OJ. Smith, E.G.C. and Berryman, K.R. (1999). "The 1934 Pahiatua earthquake: analysis of observational and instrumental data". Bull NZ Soc for Earthq Eng 32(2): 221-45.
Dowrick, D.J. (1994). "Damage and intensities in the magnitude 7 .8 1929 Murchison, New Zealand, earthquake": Bull NZ Nat Soc Earthq Eng 27(3): 190-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.27.3.190-204
Dowrick, D.J. (1998a). "Earthquake risk for property and people in New Zealand". Proc NZ Nat Soc Earthq Eng Tech Conf, Wairakei, 43-50.
Dowrick. D.J. (1998b). "Damage and intensities in the magnitude 7.8 1931 Hawke's Bay, New Zealand earthquake". Bull NZ Nat Soc Earthq Eng 31(3): 139-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.31.3.139-163
Dowrick, D.J. (2003a). "Earthquake risk reduction actions for New Zealand". Bull NZ Soc for Earth Eng, 36(4): 249-259. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.36.4.249-259
Dowrick, D.J. (2003b). Earthquake risk reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/0470869356
Durkin, M.E. (1996). "Casualty patterns in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake". Proc Eleventh World Conf on Earthq Eng, Paper No. 979, Elsevier Science Ltd.
Eiby G.A. (1968a). "A descriptive catalogue of New Zealand earthquakes. Part I - Shocks felt before the end of 1845". NZ Jnl Geol and Geoph 11: 16-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1968.10423671
Eiby, G.A. (1968b). "An annotated list of New Zealand earthquakes, 1460-1965". NZ Jnl Geol and Geophys 11: 630-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1968.10420275
Eiby, G.A. (1973). "A descriptive catalogue of New Zealand earthquakes. Part 2 - Shocks felt from 1846 to 1854". NZ Jnl Geol and Geoph 16(4): 857-907. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1973.10555229
Grapes, R. and Downes, G. (1997). "The 1855 Wairarapa, New Zealand earthquake - Analysis of historical data". Bull NZ Nat Soc for Earthq Eng 30(4): 271-368.
NZDH (1931a). "Progress report on patients from earthquake area as recorded by Department of Health at noon, 23 February, 1931", 23pp. (List held by the National Archives of New Zealand, Wellington, Reference HI 130/18, 24375.)
NZDH (1931b). "Progress report on patients from earthquake area as recorded by Department of Health on 4/3/1931", 22pp. (List held by the National Archives of New Zealand, Wellington.)
NZS (2004). "Structural design actions - Part 5: Earthquake actions - New Zealand". NZS 1170.5:2004. Standards New Zealand.
NZSG (1983). "HB earthquake, Tuesday 3 February 1931 at 10.47 am. Force 7 .9 Richter scale. Casualty lists". New Zealand Society of Genealogists, 48pp. (List held by the National Archives of New Zealand, Reference MISC 1/96.)
Spence, R.J.S., Pomonis A, Dowrick, DJ. and Cousins, WJ. (1998). "Estimating casualties in earthquakes: The case of Wellington". In seismic design practice into the next century, Booth, E. (ed.), Balkema, Rotterdam 277-86.
Stirling, M. et al. (2000). "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of New Zealand". Client Report 2000/53, prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences for the EQC Research Foundation.
Stirling, M., Yetton, M., Pettinga, J., Berryman, K. and Downes, G. (1999). "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and earthquake scenarios for the Canterbury Region, and historic earthquakes in Christchurch". Client Report 1999/53, prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences for the Canterbury Regional Council.
Yan de Vorstenbosch, G, Charleson, A.W. and Dowrick, OJ. (2002). "Reinforced concrete building performance in the M, 7.8 1931 Hawke's Bay, New Zealand earthquake". Bull NZ Soc Earthq Eng 35(2): 149-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.35.3.149-164
Copyright (c) 2005 David J. Dowrick, David A. Rhoades
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.