Improving the resistance of structures to earthquakes

  • R. Park University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Abstract

The past occurrence of earthquakes in New Zealand and the likelihood of a major earthquake in Christchurch are considered. The causes of damage by earthquakes are discussed and typical possible types of damage to building and bridge structures are described with reference to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The design of building and bridge structures for earthquake resistance by the ductile design approach is covered, including performance criteria, structural configuration, design seismic forces, mechanisms of post-elastic deformation, capacity design, detailing of reinforcement for ductility and control of deflections. Design using base isolation and mechanical energy dissipating devices is also outlined. The extensive use of precast concrete in buildings in New Zealand is described. Finally the seismic assessment and upgrading of old structures and the earthquake resistance of lifelines of communities (transportation, utilities and communications) are briefly considered.

References

G R Stevens, "New Zealand Adrift", A H and A W Reed, Wellington 1980, 442 pp.

G A Eiby "Earthquakes", Heineman Educational Books, Auckland, 1980, 209 pp.

J Cousins, "Preparing for the Next Big Quake", Build, Building Research Association o f New Zealand, May/June 1999, pp 26-29.

MD Yelton, A Wells and NJ Traylen, "The Probability and Consequences of the Next Alpine Fault Earthquake", Earthquake Commission Research Report 95/153, Wellington, 1998, 161 pp.

Christchurch Engineering Lifelines Group, "Risks and Realities - A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Vulnerability of Lifelines to Natural Hazards", Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 1997, 311 pp.

D McG Elder, I F McCahon and M D Yelton, "The Earthquake Hazard in Christchurch: A Detailed Evaluation", Earthquake Commission Research Report, Wellington, 1991, 131 pp plus appendices.

R Park, I J Billings, G C Clifton, J Cousins, A Filiatrault, D N Jennings, L C P Jones, N D Perin, S L Rooney, J Sinclair, DD Spurr, H Tanaka and G Walker, "The Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (The Great Hanshin Earthquake) of 17 January 1995. Report of the NZNSEE Reconnaissance Team", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 1, March 1995, pp 1-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.28.1.1-98

R Park, and T Paulay, "Reinforced Concrete Structures", John Wiley, New York, 1975, 769 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470172834

Standards Association of New Zealand, "General Structural Design and Design Loadings for Buildings, NZS 4203:1992", Wellington, New Zealand.

Standards New Zealand, “The Design of Concrete Structures NZS 3101 : Part 1 : 1995” and "Commentary on the Design of Concrete Structures NZS 3101 : Part 2 : 1995", and "Amendment No. 1 to NZS 3101 Parts 1 and 2, 1998", Wellington, New Zealand.

R Park, "Ductile Design Approach for Reinforced Concrete Frames", Earthquake Spectra, Professional Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 1986, pp 565-619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585398

T Paulay, “The Design of Ductile Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls for Earthquake Resistance”, Earthquake Spectra, Professional Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1986, pp 783-824. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585411

J P Hollings, "Reinforced Concrete Seismic Design", Bulletin of New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1969, pp 217- 250.

T Paulay and M J N Priestley, "Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings", John Wiley, New York, 1992, 744 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470172841

R Park, "Review of Code Developments for Earthquake Resistance Design of Concrete Structures in New Zealand", Bulletin of New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 4, December 1981, pp 177-208.

T Paulay and J R Binney, "Diagonally Reinforced Coupling Beams of Shear Walls", Shear in Reinforced Concrete, ACI Special Publication SP 42, Detroit, 1974, Vol. 1, pp 579-598.

S Watson, F A Zahn and R Park, "Confining Reinforcement for Concrete Columns", Journal of Structural Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 120, No. 6, June 1994, pp 1798-1824. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1994)120:6(1798)

M J N Priestley and M J Kowalsky, "Direct Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Concrete Buildings", Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 4, December 2000, pp 421-444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.33.4.421-444

Transit New Zealand, "Bridge Manual", 1994 plus amendment No. 1 June 1995, Wellington.

M J N Priestley and R Park, "Strength and Ductility of Concrete Bridge Columns Under Seismic Loading", Structural Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 84, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987, pp 61-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/2800

RI Skinner, R G Taylor and W H Robinson, "Hysteretic Dampers for the Protection of Structures from Earthquakes", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 1, March 1980, pp 22-36.

R I Skinner, W H Robinson and G McVerry, "An Introduction to Seismic Isolation", John Wiley, Chichester, 1993.

L M Megget, "Analysis and Design of a Base-Isolated Reinforced Concrete Frame Building", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1978, pp 245- 254.

P R Boardman, B J Wood and A J Carr, "Union House - A Cross-Braced Structure With Energy Dissipators", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, June 1998, pp 83-97.

R Park, "A Perspective on the Seismic Design of Precast Concrete Structures in New Zealand", Journal of the Prestressed/Precast Concrete Institute, Vol. 40, No. 3, May-June 1995, pp 40-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15554/pcij.05011995.40.60

Study Group of the New Zealand Concrete Society and New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, "Guidelines for the Use of Structural Precast Concrete in Buildings", Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, August 1991, pp 174.

R C Fenwick and A Fong, "The Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Cyclic Loading", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 1979, pp 158-167.

J I Restrepo, R Park and A H Buchanan, "Tests on Connections of Earthquake Resisting Precast Reinforced Concrete Perimeter Frames of Buildings", Journal of the Prestressed/Precast Concrete Institute, Vol. 40, No. 4, July-August 1995, pp 44-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15554/pcij.07011995.44.61

M Herlihy and R Park, "Detailing Precast Flooring Systems to Survive Loss of Support", Proceedings of the New Zealand Concrete Society Technical Conference, TRIS, 1996, pp 130-139.

M J N Priestley and G M Calvi, "Towards a Capacity - Design Assessment Procedure for Reinforced Concrete Frames", Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 413- 437. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585635

R Park, "A Static Force-Based Procedure for the Seismic Assessment of Existing Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames", Bulletin o f the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 3, September 1997, pp 213-226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.30.3.213-226

S Hakuto, R Park and H Tanaka, "Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames", Research Report 94-4, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, 1995.

M Rodriguez and R Park, "Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Resistance", Earthquake Spectra, Professional Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Vol. 7, No. 3, August 1991, pp 439-459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585636

M J N Priestley, F Seible and G M Calvi, "Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges", John Wiley, New York 1996, 686 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470172858

M J N Priestley, E Fyfe and F Seible, "Column Retrofit Using Fibreglass - Epoxy Jackets", First Annual Seismic Research Workshop, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, December 1991, pp 217-224.

R A Poole and J E Clendon, "New Zealand Parliament Buildings: Seismic Protection by Base Isolation", Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 3, Auckland, November 1991, pp 13-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.25.3.147-160

New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, "The Assessment and Improvement of the Structural Performance of Earthquake Risk Buildings", May 1996, pp 116.

D R Brunsdon, N R Britton, R J Carter, R F Crimp, E F Gates, M A Gordon, G J Hughson, AJW Lamb, P D Leslie, G Wabnitz and AC Watson, "Lessons for New Zealand Lifelines Organisations from the 17 January 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake", Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 1, March 1996, pp 1-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.29.1.1-55

Published
2001-03-31
How to Cite
Park, R. (2001). Improving the resistance of structures to earthquakes. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 34(1), 1-39. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.34.1.1-39
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>