Attenuation of peak ground accelerations in New Zealand earthquakes
The main result of this study is the development of attenuation expressions for peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in New Zealand earthquakes, in terms of magnitude Mw and shortest distance from the source. Other factors which are modelled are depth, focal mechanism, ground class and tectonic type of earthquake i.e. crustal, interface or dipping slab. As well as being implied in the source distance, the substantial effect of depth is modelled well with a separate linear depth term. For crustal events, focal mechanisms which are predominantly reverse are found to cause PGAs that are 28 percent stronger on average than for other mechanisms. PGAs at soil sites (ie those having soil deposits >3 m thick) are found to be 53 percent stronger on average than at other (ie rock) sites, but the difference between PGAs on rock and soil sites in large amplitude shaking remains uncertain, ie near the source o f events of Mw ≥ 7. Earthquakes occurring on the interface between the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates give rise to smaller PGAs than do crustal or slab events of the same magnitude, depth and distance. Comparisons are made between our New Zealand model and some for Europe, Japan and the Western USA.
Matuschka, T. (1980) Assessment of seismic hazard in New Zealand, Report No. 222, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Auckland.
Dowrick, D.J. and S. Sritharan (1993) Attenuation of peak ground accelerations in some recent New Zealand earthquakes, Bulletin NZ National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 26, 3-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.26.1.3-13
Dowrick, D.J., and S. Sritharan (1993) Peak ground accelerations recorded in the 1968 Inangahua earthquake and some attenuation implications, Bulletin NZ National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 26, 349-355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.26.3.349-355
McVerry, G.H., D.J. Dowrick, S.Sritharan, W.J. Cousins, and T.E. Porritt (1993) Attenuation of peak ground acceleration in New Zealand, Proc. Intl. Workshop on Strong Motion Data, Menlo Park, USA, Vol. 2, 23-38.
McVerry, G.H., D.J. Dowrick, J.X. Zhao (1995) Attenuation of peak ground accelerations in New Zealand, Proc. Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Melbourne, Vol. 3, 287-292.
Iai, S., and Y. Matsunaga (1993) Comparison of attenuation relations and response spectra for various regions in the world, Proc. Intl. Workshop on Strong Motion Data Menlo Park, USA, Vol. 1, 17-37.
Dowrick, D.J., and D.A. Rhoades, Magnitudes of New Zealand earthquakes (in prep.)
Anderson, H., T. Webb, and J. Jackson (1993) Focal mechanisms of large earthquakes in the South Island of New Zealand: implications for the accommodation of Pacific-Australia plate motion, Geophysical Journal International, 115, 1032-1054. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1993.tb01508.x
Webb, T.H., and H. Anderson Focal mechanisms of large earthquakes in the North Island of New Zealand: strain partitioning at an oblique active margin (in preparation).
Webb, T.H., IGNS, Wellington, pers, comm.
Dziewonski, A.M. et al, Centroid moment tensor solutions ..., Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, various issues.
Webb, T.H., IGNS, Wellington, pers. comm., re focal mechanisms and seismic moments of events Nos 44, 46 and 51.
Robinson, R. (1994) Shallow subduction tectonics and fault interaction: The Weber, New Zealand, earthquake sequence of 1990-1992, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, B5, 9663-9679. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/93JB02452
Luo, X. (1992) Subduction interface and crustal structure in the Cape Palliser region, North Island, New Zealand, from observations of Cape Palliser earthquakes, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35, 491-499. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1992.9514543
Reyners, M., P. McGinty, J. Ansell, and B. Ferris (1997) Movement at the plate interface in Southern Hawke's Bay; the Tikokino earthquake of 11 April 1993 (in prep.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.30.3.242-251
McVerry, G.H., S.B. Hodder, RT. Hefford and A. J. Heine (1984) Records of engineering significance from the New Zealand strong-motion network, Proc. Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, II, 199-206
NZS4203: 1992 Code of practice for general structural design and design loadings for buildings, Standards New Zealand, Wellington.
Cousins, W. J., N. D. Perrin, G. H. McVerry, R. J. Hefford and T. E. Porritt (1996) Ground conditions at strong motion recording sites in New Zealand, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Science Report 96/33, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.
Otsuka, H., H. Iwasaki and R. Isoyama (1993) Attenuation characteristics of near-source motions, Proc. Intl. Workshop on Strong Motion Data, Menlo Park, California, Vol. 2, 83-98.
Campbell, K.W. (1981) Near-source attenuation of peak horizontal acceleration, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 71, 2039-2070.
Joyner, W. B., and D.M. Boore (1981) Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 71, 2011-2038.
Boore, D. M., W.B. Joyner, and T.E. Furnal (1993) Estimation of response spectra and peak accelerations from Western North American earthquakes: an interim report, Part 1, Open-File Report 93-509, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr93509
Boore, D. M., W. B. Joyner, and T. E. Furnal (1994) Estimation of response spectra and peak accelerations from Western North American earthquakes: an interim report, Part 2, Open-File Report 94-127, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr94127
Fukushima, Y., and T. Tanaka (1990) A new attenuation relation for peak horizontal acceleration of strong earthquake ground motion in Japan, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 80, 757-783.
Crouse, C.B. (1991) Ground-motion attenuation equations for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Earthquake Spectra, 7(2), 201-236. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585626
Idriss, I. M. (1985) Evaluating seismic risk in engineering practice, Proc. 11th Intl. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, Vol 1, 225-360.
Idriss L M. (1991) Selection of earthquake ground motions at rock sites, Report prepared for the Structures Division, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis.
Abrahamson, N., and W. Silva (1996) Empirical response spectra attenuation relations for shallow crustal earthquakes, Seismological Research Letters, 68 (1), 94-117 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.68.1.94
Youngs, R. R., N. Abrahamson, F. Makdisi, and K. Sadigh (1995) Magnitude-dependent variance of peak ground acceleration, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America 85(4), 1161-1176.
Donovan, N. C. and A. E. Bornstein (1978) Uncertainties in seismic risk procedures, Journal of the Geotechnical Division, ASCE, 104, 869-887.
Campbell, K.W., and Y. Bozorgnia (1994) Near-source attenuation of peak horizontal acceleration from worldwide accelerograms recorded form 1957 to 1993, Proc. Fifth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Chicago.
Ambraseys, N.N., and J.J. Bommer (1991) The attenuation of ground accelerations in Europe, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 20, 1179-1202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290201207
Molas, G.L., and F. Yamazaki (1995) Attenuation of earthquake ground motion in Japan including deep focus events, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 85, 1343-1358.
Dowrick, D.J. (1991) Attenuation of Modified Mercalli intensity in New Zealand earthquakes, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 21, 181-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210301
Ambraseys, N.N. (1973) Dynamics and response of foundation materials in epicentral regions of strong earthquakes, Proc. 5th World Conf. on Earthq. Eng., Rome, 1, CXXVI-CXLVIIL
Idriss, I.M. (1990) Response of soft soil sites during earthquakes, Proc. Memorial Symp. to honor Professor Harry Bolton Seed, Berkeley California, Vol II, 273-289.
Dowrick, D. J., D. A. Rhoades, J. Babor and R.D. Beetham (1995) Damage ratios for houses and microzoning effects in Napier in the magnitude 7. 8 Hawke 's Bay, New Zealand earthquake of 1931, Bulletin NZ National Soc. for Earthq. Engineering, 28, 134-145.
Idriss, I. M. (1991) Earthquake ground motions ·at soft soil sites, Proc. Second International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St Louis, Missouri, Vol. III, 2265-2272.
Haines, A. J. (1981) A local magnitude scale for New Zealand earthquakes, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 71(1), 275-294.
Cousins, WJ. Use of seismograph data for PGA attenuation modelling (in preparation).
Smith, W.D. (1978) Spatial distribution of felt intensities for New Zealand earthquakes, NZ Journal Geology and Geophysics, 21, 293-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1978.10424059
Smith, W. D. (1995) A development in the modelling of far-field intensities for New Zealand earthquakes, Bulletin N.Z. Natl. Soc. for Earthquake Engineering, 28(3), 196-217.
Ambraseys, N. N., and K.A. Simpson (1996) Prediction of vertical response spectra in Europe, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 25, 401-412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199604)25:4<401::AID-EQE551>3.0.CO;2-B
Niazi, M., and Y. Bozorgnia (1992) Behaviour of near-source vertical and horizontal response spectra at SMART-1 array, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 21, 37-50 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210103
Abrahamson, N.A., and J.J. Litehiser (1989) Attenuation of vertical peak acceleration, Bulletin Seism. Soc. of America, 79, 549-569.
Anderson, H., et al., (1994) The Inangahua, New Zealand, earthquake: an integrated geological, geodetic and seismological source model, NZ Journal Geology and Geophysics, 37(1), 59-86.
Copyright (c) 1997 J. X. Zhao, D. J. Dowrick, G. H. McVerry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.