Intraplate seismicity and zonation

  • B. A. Bolt University of California, Berkeley, USA

Abstract

Significant intraplate earthquakes have been observed under deep oceans and in all continents except Greenland. They present special problems of seismic risk estimation compared to the more frequent interplate earthquakes. Their location in space and time is more uncertain because of the low seismicity rate, scattered locations, and lack of surface seismogenic fault evidence. Nevertheless, recent geological and seismological work in several stable continents, particularly western North America and Australia, has improved the assessment of seismic hazard maps and risk zonation in such regions. Estimation of robust synthetic ground motion spectra and time histories, however, remains relatively uncertain. Strong motion instrumentation at Continental Reference Stations (CRS) is recommended.

References

Ambraseys, N N. 1988. Engineering seismology, (First Mallet-Milne Lecture), Earthq. Engrg. and Struc. Dyn. 17: 1-105.

Ambraseys, N N and Bommer, J J. 1991. The attenuation of ground accelerations in Europe, Earthq. Engrg. and Struc. Dyn. 20: 1179-1202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290201207

Atkinson, G M. 1993. Source spectra for earthquakes in eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 83: 1778-1798.

Atkinson, GM and Boore, D M. 1995. Ground motion relations for eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 85: 17-30.

Bard, P Y. 1982. Diffracted waves and displacement field over two dimensional elevated topographies, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 71: 731-760. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1982.tb02795.x

Bertero, V V, Mahin, S A and Herrera, R A. 1978. Aseismic design implications of near fault San Fernando earthquake records, Earthq. Engrg. and Struc. Dyn. 6: 31-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290060105

Boatwright, J and Choy, G. 1992. Acceleration source spectra anticipated for large earthquakes in northeastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 82: 660-682.

Bolt B A. 1957. The velocity of the seismic waves Lg and Rg across Australia, Nature 180: 495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/180495a0

Bolt, B A . 1971. The San Fernando Valley, California, earthquake of February 9, 1971: data on seismic hazards, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 61: 501-510.

Bolt, B A (Chairman). 1980. U.S. earthquake observatories: recommendations for a new national network. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Bolt, B A (Editor). 1987. Seismic Strong Motion Synthetics. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.

Bolt, B A. 1994. The state of the art in synthesis of strong ground motion for earthquake engineering, Proc., 10th World Conf. Earthq. Engrg., Madrid, 6487-6492.

Bolt B A. 1995. From acceleration to displacement, (Fifth Mallet-Milne Lecture), Earthq. Engrg. and Struc. Dyn. (in the press).

Bowman, J R and Barlow, B C. 1991. Relocation of teleseismically recorded earthquakes near Tennant Creek, Australia - implications for midplate seismogenesis, J. Geophys. Res. 96: 11,973-11,979.

Bowman, J R, Crone, A J and Machette, M N. 1995. The recurrence of earthquakes in the stable continental region of Australia: Marryat Creek and Tennant Creek. Electric Power Research Institute. EPRI Report TR- 102157. Palo Alto, California.

Coppersmith, K J, Johnston, JC, Kanter, LR., Youngs, R R and Metzger, A G. 1990. Methods for assessing maximum earthquakes in the eastern United States. Electric Power Research Institute. EPRI Report RP-. 2556-12. Palo Alto, California.

Crone, A J and Luza, K V . 1990. Style and timing of Holocene surface faulting on the Meers fault, southwestern Oklahoma, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 102: 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1990)102<0001:SATOHS>2.3.CO;2

Crone, A J, Machette, M N and Bowman, JR. 1987. Proceedings o f Conference XXXIX -Directions in Paleoseismology. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 87-673. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr87673

Denham, D. 1988. Australian seismicity - the puzzle of the not-so-stable continent, Seism. Res. Let. 59: 235-240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.59.4.235

Dewey, J W, Hill, DP, Ellsworth, W Land Engdahl, E R . 1989. Earthquakes, faults and the seismotectonic framework of the contiguous United States, Geol. Soc. Am. Memoir 172: 541-575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/MEM172-p541

Donovan, N C, Bolt, B A and Whitman, R V. 1978. Development of expectancy maps and risk analysis, ASCE, J. Struc. Dyn. 104: 1179-1192.

EPRI. 1988. Engineering model of earthquake ground motion for eastern North America. Electric Power Research Institute. EPRI Report NP-6074. Palo Alto, California.

Fredrich, J, Mc.Caffrey, R and Denham, D. 1988. Source parameters of seven large Australian earthquakes determined by body waveform inversion, Geophys. J. 95: 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1988.tb00446.x

Hao, H, Oliveira, CS and Penzien, J. 1989. Multiple- station ground motion processing and simulation based on SMART-1 array data, Nuclear Engrg. and Design 11: 293-310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(89)90241-0

Heaton, TH, Hali, J F, Wald, DJ and Halling, MW. 1995. Response of high-rise and base-isolated buildings to a hypothetical Mw 7.0 blind thrust earthquake, Science 267: 206-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.267.5195.206

Horton, SP. 1994. Simulation of strong ground motion in eastern North America, Proc., 5th National Conference on Earthq. Engrg., Earthq. Engrg. Res. Institute (EERI), Chicago, 3: 251-260.

Johnson, A C and Kanter, L R. 1990. Earthquakes in stable continental crust, Scientific American 68-75.

Machette, M N , Crone, A J and Bowman, J R. 1993. Geological investigations of the 1986 Marryat Creek. Australia, earthquake - implications for paleoseismicity in stable continental regions. U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 2032-B.

Michael-Leiba, M, Jones T and McCue, K. 1993. Seismic hazard in Australia, in The practice of earthquake hazard assessment (Editor, R K McGuire). IASPEI.

McCue, K. 1990. Australia's large earthquakes and recent fault scarps, J. Struc. Geol. 12: 761-766. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(90)90087-F

Nuttli, O W. 1979. The Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812. Intensities, ground motion and magnitudes, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 63: 227-248.

O'Connell, D R and Ake, J P. 1995. Ground motion analysis for Hoover Dam, Boulder Canyon project. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Seismotectonic Report 94-1.

Somerville, P, McLaren J, Saikia C, and Helmberger D. 1990. The 25 November 1988 Saguenay, Quebec, earthquake: source parameters and the attenuation of strong ground motion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 80: 1118- 1143.

Sykes, L R. 1978. Intraplate seismicity, reactivation of preexisting zones of weakness, alkaline magmatism, and other tectonism postdating continental fragmentation, Reviews of Geophys. and Space Phys. 16: 621-688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/RG016i004p00621

Wiens, D A and Stein, S. 1984. Intraplate seismicity and stresses in young oceanic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 89: 11,442-11,464.

Published
1996-12-31
How to Cite
Bolt, B. A. (1996). Intraplate seismicity and zonation. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 29(4), 221-228. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.29.4.221-228
Section
Articles