Impact between buildings during earthquakes
A numerical study of the parameters affecting the impact between adjacent buildings subjected to seismic excitation has been carried out in an endeavour to quantify the relative importance of the structural parameters.
A two-dimensional inelastic dynamic analysis program was used to model various combinations of adjacent framed structures subjected to ground accelerograms and where the frames are assumed to be separated by distances sufficiently small as to permit contact. Collisions were modelled using special contact elements which will transmit forces when the specified gap has been closed.
It will be shown that where there are adjoining frames are of different heights, large increases in response are observed in the upper part of the taller frame. Pounding can also amplify the effects of localised changes in stiffness and strength up the frame-, producing member demands greatly in excess of the normal design values.
Davis, R.O. 1992. Pounding of Buildings Modelled by an Impact Oscillator. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. 21:253-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210305
Maison, B.F. and Kasai,K. 1990. Analysis for a Type of Structural Pounding. J. Struct. Eng. 116(4):957-975.
Kasai, K., Maison, B.F. and Patel, D.J. 1990. An Earthquake Analysis for Buildings Subjected to a Type of Pounding. Proc. 4th U.S. National Conf on Earthquake Engineering.
Maison, B.F. and Kasai,K. 1992. Dynamics of Pounding When Two Buildings Collide. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 21:771-786. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210903
Jeng, V., Kasai, K. and Maison, B.F. 1992. A Spectral Difference Method to Estimate Building Separations to Avoid Pounding. Earthquake Spectra 8(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585679
Sinclair, K.M. 1993. The Response of Multistorey Frames to Seismic Pounding. M.E. Report, University of Canterbury.
Thompson, E.D. 1991. P-Delta Effects in Ductile Reinforced Concrete Frames Under Seismic Loading. M.E. Report, University of Canterbury, Christchurch.
Jury, R.D. 1978. Seismic Load Demands on Columns of Reinforced Concrete Multistorey Frames. Research Report, 78-12, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury.
Paulay, T 1979. Developments in the Design of Ductile Reinforced Concrete Frames. Proc. 2nd South Pacific Regional Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Wellington.
Carr, A.J. and Moss, P.J. 1994. Structural Damping Models for Non-Linear Seismic Analysis. Proc. 1994 NZNSEE Conference.