The Mw7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake

Surface fault rupture and seismic hazard context

  • Mark W. Stirling University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
  • N. J. Litchfield GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2053-3176
  • Pilar Villamor GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9541-290X
  • Russ J. Van Dissen GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8224-7573
  • Andy Nicol University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Jarg Pettinga University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Philip Barnes NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1050-9498
  • Robert M. Langridge GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5092-0468
  • Tim Little Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, NZ
  • David Barrell GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Joshu Mountjoy NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3703-0006
  • W. F. Ries GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Julie V. Rowland University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • C. Fenton University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Ian Hamling GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4324-274X
  • C. Asher GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Andrea Barrier University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Adrian Benson Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, NZ
  • Alan Bischoff University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Josh Borella University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • R. Carne Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Ursula Cochran GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8002-4958
  • Matt Cockcroft University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Simon Cox GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Grace Duke University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
  • F. Fenton University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • C. Gasston University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Chris Grimshaw University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • D. Hale University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Brendan S. Hall University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Ken X. Hao NIED, Tsukuba, Japan
  • Alex Hatem University of Southern California, CA, USA
  • Mark Hemphill-Haley Humboldt State University, CA, USA
  • David Heron GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • J. Howarth GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Z. Juniper GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Tim Kane NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand
  • J. Kearse Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, NZ
  • Narges Khajavi University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Geoffroy Lamarche NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand
  • S. Lawson GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Biljana Lukovic GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • C. Madugo Pacific Gas and Electric Company, CA, USA
  • I. Manousakis Elxis Group, Greece
  • Sam McColl Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • D. Noble University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Kate Pedley University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • K. Sauer University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
  • T. Stahl Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance
  • Delia Strong GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Dougal Townsend GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Virginia Toy University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7621-2064
  • Marlene Villeneuve University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • A. Wandres University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • J. Williams University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
  • Susanne Woelz NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand
  • Robert Zinke University of Southern California, CA, USA

Abstract

We provide a summary of the surface fault ruptures produced by the Mw7.8 14 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake, including examples of damage to engineered structures, transportation networks and farming infrastructure produced by direct fault surface rupture displacement. We also provide an overview of the earthquake in the context of the earthquake source model and estimated ground motions from the current (2010) version of the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for New Zealand. A total of 21 faults ruptured along a c.180 km long zone during the earthquake, including some that were unknown prior to the event. The 2010 version of the NSHM had considered multi-fault ruptures in the Kaikōura area, but not to the degree observed in the earthquake. The number of faults involved a combination of known and unknown faults, a mix of complete and partial ruptures of the known faults, and the non-involvement of a major fault within the rupture zone (i.e. the Hope Fault) makes this rupture an unusually complex event by world standards. However, the strong ground motions of the earthquake are consistent with the high hazard of the Kaikōura area shown in maps produced from the NSHM.

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Published
2017-06-30
How to Cite
Stirling, M. W., Litchfield, N. J., Villamor, P., Van Dissen, R. J., Nicol, A., Pettinga, J., Barnes, P., Langridge, R. M., Little, T., Barrell, D., Mountjoy, J., Ries, W. F., Rowland, J. V., Fenton, C., Hamling, I., Asher, C., Barrier, A., Benson, A., Bischoff, A., Borella, J., Carne, R., Cochran, U., Cockcroft, M., Cox, S., Duke, G., Fenton, F., Gasston, C., Grimshaw, C., Hale, D., Hall, B. S., Hao, K. X., Hatem, A., Hemphill-Haley, M., Heron, D., Howarth, J., Juniper, Z., Kane, T., Kearse, J., Khajavi, N., Lamarche, G., Lawson, S., Lukovic, B., Madugo, C., Manousakis, I., McColl, S., Noble, D., Pedley, K., Sauer, K., Stahl, T., Strong, D., Townsend, D., Toy, V., Villeneuve, M., Wandres, A., Williams, J., Woelz, S., & Zinke, R. (2017). The Mw7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.73-84
Section
Articles

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