Ormond earthquake liquefaction reconnaissance report

  • Steven A. Christensen University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand


On August 10 1993, at 09h 46m UT an earthquake of magnitude (ML) 6.4 occurred near Ormond, a locality to the north west of Gisbome in the North Island of New Zealand. The epicentre of the event was 38.52°S, 177.93°E, and had a focal depth of 48 km (Seismological Observatory, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd.). Strong motion accelerographs at two sites on sediment in Gisborne recorded peak ground accelerations of 0.22 g at a distance of 20 km from the epicentre, while at Wairoa (80 km to the SW of the epicentre) 0.05 g was recorded, at Tolaga Bay (30 km to the NE of the epicentre) 0.09 g was measured [Pers. Comn. J. Zhou], and strong motion lasted for 5-10 s. Intensity of MMVI was observed in the Ormond area with pockets of MMVII, the later being based in particular on the presence of liquefaction.


Kuribayashi, E. and F. Tatasuoka (1975), "Brief Review of Liquefaction During Earthquakes in Japan", Soils and Foundations, Vol 15, No. 4, pp 81-92 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.15.4_81

Pullar, W.A (1962), "Soils and Agriculture of Gisborne Plains", Soil Bureau Bulletin 20, DSIR, Wellington.

Scott, R.F. and KA Zuckerman (1973) "Sand Blows and Liquefaction" The Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 - Engineering Volume, Committee on the Alaska Earthquake, Division of Earth Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp 827-845

Tsuchida, H. and S. Hayashi (1971), "Estimation of Liquefaction Potential of Sandy Soil", Proc. 3rd Meeting, U.S. Japan Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects, Tokyo.

How to Cite
Christensen, S. A. (1993). Ormond earthquake liquefaction reconnaissance report. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 26(3), 312-328. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.26.3.312-328