Seismic hazard estimates for the Auckland area, and their design and construction implications
Revised estimates of the return periods of Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity for Auckland and Northland, arising from a revision of the attenuation of intensity in New Zealand, and latest data and views on the local seismicity and geology, represent considerable reductions in the hazard given in Smith and Berryman's seismic hazard model of New Zealand. The revised levels are MM6 and MM7 for 150 and 1200 year return periods. This implies that most structures and plant in Auckland and Northland could have much simpler and less onerous earthquake resistant design and construction than required by current codes. This simpler approach would be significantly cheaper for older so-called "earthquake risk buildings" as well as new construction.
Bender, B. 1984. Incorporating acceleration variability into seismic hazard analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 74: 1451-1462.
Berrill, J.B. 1985. Seismic hazard analysis and design loads. Bulletin New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 18: 139-150.
Berryman, K.R. 1991. DSIR, Lower Hutt, Pers. comm.
Booth, E.D. and Baker, M.J. 1990. Code provisions for engineered building structures in areas of low seismicity. Proc. Ninth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Moscow, 1: 269-278.
Carter, L. 1991. DSIR, Wellington, Pers. comm.
De Lange, P.J. and Lowe, D.J. 1990. History of vertical displacement of Kerepehi fault at Kopouatai: Bog, Hauraki lowlands, New Zealand, since c.10,700 years ago. NZ Jnl of Geology and Geophysics, 30: 277-283.
Dowrick, D.J. and Rhoades, D.A. 1990. Damage ratios for domestic buildings in the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Bulletin New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 23(1): 137-149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.23.2.137-149
Dowrick, D.J. 1991. Damage costs for houses and farms as a function of intensity in the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 20: 455-479.
Dowrick, D.J., and Rhoades, D.A. Damage costs for commercial and industrial property as a function of intensity in the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Submitted to Earth- quake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, May 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290221004
Dowrick, D.J. 1991. A revision of attenuation relationships for Modified Mercalli Intensity in New Zealand earthquakes. Bulletin New Zealand Natl.Soc. for Earthq. Eng., 24: 210-224.
Dowrick, D.J. 1992. "Attenuation of Modified Mercalli intensity in New Zealand. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 21: 181-196.
Biby, G.A. 1955. The seismicity of Auckland City and Northland. New Zealand Jnl of Science and Technology B(36): 488-494.
Biby, G.A. 1968. A descriptive catalogue of New Zealand earthquakes, Part 1 - Shocks felt before the end of 1845. NZ Jnl of Geology and Geophysics 11: 16-40.
Biby, G.A. 1964. Earthquakes in Northland. New Zealand Engineering 19: 125-165.
International Conference of Building Officials, 1979. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California.
Matuschka, T. 1980. Assessment of seismic hazard in New Zealand. Report No. 222, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Auckland.
Matuschka,T., Berryman,K.R., O'Leary, A.J., McVerry, G.H., Mulholland, W.M., and Skinner, R.I. 1985. New Zealand seismic hazard analysis. Bulletin NZ National Soc. for Earthq. Engineering 18(4): 313-322.
McVerry, G.H. and Sritharan, S. 1991. Earthquake site response effects demonstrated by New Zealand strong-motion records. Proc.Pacific Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, November, Vol.3: 205-216.
Mooney, H.M. 1970. Upper mantle inhomogeneity beneath New Zealand: seismic evidence. Jnl Geophysical Research 75: 285-309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JB075i002p00285
Nordenson, G. 1989. Wind versus seismic design. In: Earthquake hazards and the design of constructed facilities in the Eastern United States. New York Academy of Sciences, New York. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb22576.x
Reyners, M.E. 1990. DSIR, Wellington, Pers.comm.
Smith, W.D. 1978a. Spatial distribution of felt intensities for New Zealand earthquakes. NZ Jnl of Geology and Geophysics 21: 293-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1978.10424059
Smith, W.D. 1978b. Earthquake risk in New Zealand: statistical estimates. NZ Jnl of Geology and Geophysics 21: 313-327. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1978.10424060
Smith, W.D. and Berryman, K.R. 1986. "Earthquake hazard in New Zealand: inferences from seismology and geology. Royal Society of New Zealand, Bulletin 24: 223- 243.
New Zealand Standards Institute. 1965. New Zealand Standard Model Building Bylaw, Chapter 8, Basic design loads. NZSS 1900. Wellington.
New Zealand Standards Institute. 1965. Commentary of Chapter 8 of NZSS 1900. MP12. Wellington.
Standards Association of New Zealand. 1984. Code of practice for general structural design and design loadings for buildings. NZS 4203. Wellington.
Standards Association of New Zealand. 1991. General structural design and design loadings for buildings. Draft New Zealand Standard. DZ4203. Wellington.
Thrasher, G.P. 1986. Basement structure and sediment thickness beneath the continental shelf of the Hauraki Gulf and offshore Coromandel region, New Zealand. NZ Jnl Geology and Geophysics 29(1): 41-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1986.10427521
Thrasher, G.P . 1988. Subsurface geology o f the continental shelf, Bay of Plenty to the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand. NZ Geological Survey. Report Gl33. Lower Hutt.
Walley, P. 1976. The estimation of earthquake risk in New Zealand. Technical Report No.49, Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington.
Copyright (c) 1992 David J. Dowrick
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.