Ground performance in Wellington waterfront area following the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake

Abstract

Although located about 200 km away from the epicentre of the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake, the waterfront areas of Wellington City suffered varying degrees of damage as a result of soil liquefaction and associated ground deformations. This paper presents a summary of the major observations made following reconnaissance inspections of the geotechnical effects caused by the earthquake, with emphasis on the ground performance in the affected areas near the waterfront. Except for CentrePort, summarised elsewhere in this Special Issue, the inspections concentrated mostly on the waterfront areas and the impact to buildings built on reclaimed lands. Cracks and minor ground subsidence were observed in many parts of the waterfront, but the damage was less than that in CentrePort where significant liquefaction-induced damage was evident. The age of reclamation appears to have significant effect on the distribution of liquefaction-induced damage, while reclaimed areas where improvement techniques have been implemented performed well.

References

Cubrinovski M, Bray JD, de la Torre C, Olsen MJ, Bradley BA, Chiaro G, Stocks E and Wotherspoon L (2017). “Liquefaction effects and associated damages observed at the Wellington Centreport from the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 152-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.152-173

Wellington City Council (2016). “History of Waterfront Area”. http://wellington.govt.nz/about-wellington/history/history-of-wellington-waterfront/waterfront-reclamation (Accessed 10/12/2016).

Murashev A and Palmer S (1998). “Geotechnical issues associated with development on Wellington's waterfront”. IPENZ Conference 98, 45-50.

Bradley BA, Wotherspoon LM and Kaiser AE (2017). “Ground motion and site effect observations in the Wellington Region from the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 94-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.94-105

Stirling M, McVerry G, Gerstenberger M, Litchfield N, Van Dissen R, Berryman K, Barnes P, Wallace L, Villamor P, Langridge R, Lamarche G, Nodder S, Reyners M, Bradley B, Rhoades D, Smith W, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Clark K and Jacobs K (2012). “National seismic hazard model for New Zealand: 2010 update”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 102: 1514-1542.

GeoNet (2016). http://www.geonet.org.nz/ (Accessed 22 December 2016).

Holden C, Kaiser A, Van Dissen R and Jury R. (2013). “Sources, ground motion and structural response characteristics in Wellington of the 2013 Cook Strait Earthquakes”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 46(4): 188-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.4.188-195

Orense RP, Kiyota T, Yamada S, Cubrinovski M, Hosono Y, Okamura M and Yasuda S (2011). “Comparative study of liquefaction features observed during the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes”. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): 905-918. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.82.6.905

Pender M, Wotherspoon L, Cubrinovski M, Bowman L and Orense RP (2012). “Evidence of earthquake-induced liquefaction obtained from GeoEye-1 images”. Geotechnique Letters, 2: 49-53.

Orense R, Yamada S and Otsubo M (2012). “Soil liquefaction in Tokyo Bay area due to the 2011 Tohoku (Japan) Earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 45(1): 15-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.45.1.15-22

Henry RS, Dizhur D, Elwood KJ, Hare J and Brunsdon D (2017). “Damage to concrete buildings with precast floors during the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 174-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.174-186

Palmer S (2006). “Assessment of the potential for earthquake induced lateral spreading”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Technical Conference, Napier, Paper 32, 8pp.

Hancox GT, Archibald G, Cousins J, Perrin ND and Misra S (2013). “Reconnaissance Report on Liquefaction Effects and Landslides Caused by the ML 6.5 Cook Strait Earthquake of 21 July 2013, New Zealand”. GNS Science Report 2013/42, 27pp.

Van Dissen R, McSaveney M, Townsend D, Hancox G, Little TA, Ries W, Archibald G, Dellow G, Massey C and Misra S (2013). “Landslides and liquefaction generated by the Cook Strait and Lake Grassmere Earthquakes: a reconnaissance report”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 46(4): 196-200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.4.196-200

Wood JH and Martin GR (1993). “Evaluation of seismic design parameters for the Museum of New Zealand site”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 28(2): 118-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.28.2.118-133

Wotherspoon LM, Orense RP, Jacka M, Green RA, Cox BR and Wood CM (2014). “Seismic Performance of improved ground sites during the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence”. Earthquake Spectra (Special Issue on 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence), 30(1): 111-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/082213EQS236M

Published
2017-06-30
How to Cite
Orense, R. P., Mirjafari, Y., Asadi, S., Naghibi, M., Chen, X., Altaf, O., & Asadi, B. (2017). Ground performance in Wellington waterfront area following the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2), 142-151. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.142-151
Section
Articles