Liquefaction effects and associated damages observed at the Wellington CentrePort from the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake
Widespread liquefaction occurred in the end-dumped gravelly fills and hydraulically-placed dredged sandy fill at the CentrePort of Wellington as a result of the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake. This liquefaction resulted in substantial global (mass) settlement and lateral movement (spreading) of the fills towards the sea, which adversely affected wharf structures and buildings constructed on shallow and deep foundations. This paper presents key observations from the QuakeCoRE-GEER post-earthquake reconnaissance efforts at the CentrePort Wellington. The different materials and methods used to construct the reclaimed land at CentrePort influenced the patterns of observed liquefaction and its effects. Areas of gravel liquefaction at the port are especially important due to the limited number of these case histories in the literature. Liquefaction-induced ground deformations caused the wharves to displace laterally and damage their piles and offloading equipment. Lateral ground extension and differential settlement damaged buildings, whereas buildings in areas of uniform ground settlement without lateral extension performed significantly better.
QuakeCoRE – GEER (2017). “Geotechnical Aspects of the 14 November 2016 Kaikoura (New Zealand) Earthquake”. QuakeCoRE – GEER Reconnaissance Report. Editors: Cubrinovski and Bray.
Orense RP, Mirjafari Y, Asadi S, Naghibi M, Chen X, Altaf O and Asadi B (2017). “Liquefaction-Induced Damage in Wellington Waterfront Area Following the 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake”. Bulletin of New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 142-151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.142-151
Hutchison AJH (1973). “Reclamations in Wellington Harbour with special reference to recent developments”. New Zealand Engineering, 15 August 1973, 217-224.
Tonkin & Taylor Ltd. (2012). “Thorndon Container Wharf Seismic Assessment Geotechnical Factual Report”. Prepared for CentrePort Limited. Ref No. 85369.001.
Anderson G (1984). “Fresh about the Cook Strait – An appreciation of Wellington Harbour”. Methuen Publications, p.215.
Tonkin & Taylor Ltd. (1998). “Proposed Coldstore Geotechnical Report”. Prepared for CentrePort Limited. Ref No. 82363.
Tonkin & Taylor Ltd. (2000). “CentrePort Shed R Geotechnical Report”. Prepared for CentrePort Limited. Ref No. 82787-01.
Tonkin & Taylor Ltd. (2006). “Harbour Quays Development Factual Geotechnical Report, Revision 2”. Prepared for CentrePort Wellington Limited. Ref No. 83725.004
Tonkin & Taylor Ltd. (2014). “Thorndon Container Wharf Seismic Assessment Geotechnical Interpretive Report”. Prepared for CentrePort Limited. Ref No. 85369.001.
Semmens S, Dellow GD and Perrin ND (2010). “It’s Our Fault – Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation of the Wellington Central Business District”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/176. 52p.
Wellington Harbour Board (1936). “Historical Plan of Reclamations in the Port of Wellington (Port Nicholson)”.
Bradley BA, Razafindrakoto HNT and Polak V (2017). “Ground motion observations from the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake and insights from broadband simulations”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 740-756. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220160225
SNZ (2004). “NZS 1170.5: Structural Design Actions – Part 5 Earthquake Actions – New Zealand”. Standards New Zealand, Wellington, NZ.
Boulanger RW and Idriss IM (2012). “Probabilistic Standard Penetration Test-Based Liquefaction-Triggering Procedure”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 138: 1185-1195 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000700
Boulanger RW and Idriss IM (2014). “CPT and SPT Based Liquefaction Triggering Procedures”. Report No. UCD/CGM-14/01, Center for Geotechnical Modelling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, April 2014.
Greater Wellington Regional Council: http://graphs.gw.govt.nz/?siteName=Wellington%20at%2 0Te%20Papa&dataSource=Rainfall&interval=1%20Hour &Alignment=1%20Hour (Accessed 11 May 2017).
Ishihara K, Yoshida K and Kato M (1997). “Characteristics of lateral spreading in liquefied deposits during the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 1(1): 23–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469708962360
Cubrinovski M and Robinson K (2016). “Lateral spreading: Evidence and interpretation from the 2010–2011 Christchurch earthquakes”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 91: 187–201.
Copyright (c) 2017 Misko Cubrinovski, Jonathan D. Bray, Christopher De La Torre, Michael J. Olsen, Brendon A. Bradley, Gabriele Chiaro, Emilia Stocks, Liam Wotherspoon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.