Performance of road bridges during the 14 November 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake
The transport infrastructure was majorly affected by the 14th November 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake. Severe vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations generated high inertial forces, land-slides, and liquefaction. Most of the bridges in the Hurunui, Malborough and Kaikōura districts were critical nodes to the railway and road networks. In total, 904 road bridges across those districts were affected. Two reached the life safety limit state, suffering severe damage, however, most of the affected bridges experienced only minor to moderate damage. This paper describes the structural performance of the most severely damaged bridges based on observations made from site inspections. In addition to this, several performance issues have arisen from this event and are posed in this paper, hopefully to be addressed in the near future.
Kaiser A, Balfour N, Fry B, Holden C, Litchfield N, Gerstenberger M, D’Anastasio E, Horspool N, McVerry G, Ristau J, Bannister S, Christophersen A, Clark K, Power W, Rhoades D, Massey C, Hamling I, Wallace L, Mountjoy J. Kaneko Y, Benites R, Van Houtte C, Dellow, S, Wotherspoon L, Elwood K and Gledhill K (2017). “The 2016 Kaikōura, New Zealand, earthquake: preliminary seismological report”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 727-739. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220170018
Davies AJ, Sadashiva V, Aghababaei M, Barnhill D, Costello SB, Fanslow B, Headifen D, Hughes M, Kotze R, Mackie J, Ranjitkar P, Thompson J, Troitino DR, Wilson T, Woods S and Wotherspoon LM (2017). “Transport infrastructures performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 271-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.271-299
Hogan LS, Wotherspoon LM, and Ingham JM (2013). “Development of New Zealand seismic bridge standards”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 46(4): 201–221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.4.201-221
Stringer ME, Bastin S, McGann CR, Cappellaro C, El Kortbawi M, McMahon R, Wotherspoon LM, Green RA, Aricheta J, Davis R, McGlynn L, Hargraves S, van Ballegooy S, Cubrinovski M, Bradley BA, Bellagamba X, Foster K, Lai C, Ashfield D, Baki A, Zekkos A, Lee R and Ntritsos N (2017). “Geotechnical aspects of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake on the South Island of New Zealand”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 117-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.117-141
GNS Science (2016). “Strong motion records for 11 Nov 2016, Kaikōura Earthquake”. Retrieved May 11 2016. ftp://ftp.geonet.org.nz/strong/processed/Proc/2016/11_Nov/2016-11-13_110256/Vol2/
Earthquake Commission & GNS Science (2017). “GeoNet DELTA”. Retrieved March 2 2017. https://magma.geonet.org.nz/delta/app?service=direct/0/Home/$Border.searchSeismicStation
Litchfield N, Barrell D, Begg J, Benson A, Berryman K, Clark K, … Villamor P (2016): “14th November 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake. Preliminary earthquake geology observations”. Retrieved from http://info.geonet.org.nz/x/g4A5AQ
Bradley BA, Razafindrakoto HNT and Polak V (2017). “Ground‐motion observations from the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand Earthquake and insights from broadband simulations”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 740-756. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220160225
Palermo A, Wotherspoon L, Wood JH, Chapman H, Scott, A, Hogan L, Kivell A, Camnasio E, Yashinsky M, Bruneau M and Chouw N (2011). “Lessons learnt from 2011 Christchurch earthquakes: analysis and assessment of bridges”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(4): 319-333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.319-333
Bocchini GM, Rais A, Brando M, Giovinazzi S, Palermo A and Crowley H (2017). “Earthquake-Induced Physical Damage and Functional Impact on Bridges: Learning from the Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake (New Zealand)”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, (Under Review).