Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” earthquake
At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern.
This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.
Nicol A, Benson A, Bischoff A, Hatem A, Barrier A, Villamor P, Wandres A, Lukovic B, Hall B, Gasston C, Margetts C, Asher C, Grimshaw C, Madugo C, Fenton C, Hale D, Barrell D, Heron D, Strong D, Townsend D, Noble DJH, Pettinga J, Kearse J, Williams J, Bensing J, Manousakis J, Borella J, Mountjoy J, Rowland J, Clark K, Pedley K, Sauer K, Berryman K, Hemphill-Haley M, Stirling M, Villeneuve M, Cockroft M, Khajavi N, Griffiths N, Barnes P, Villamor P, Carne R, Langridge R, Zinke R, van Dissen R, McColl S, Cox S, Lawson S, Little T, Stahl T, Cochran U, Toy V, Ries W, Juniper Z, Mouslopoulou V, Oncken O, Begg J, Hamlin I, Kufner S, Reid C, Panagiotis P, Kyritsis S, Beetham D, Kaiser A, Balfour N, Holden C, Fry B, Hamling I, Horspool N, McVerry G, D’Anastasio E, Gerstenberger M, Bannister S, Ristau J, van Houtte C, Abbott E, Hreinsdottir S, Christophersen A, Rhoades D, Benites R, Wotherspoon L, Dellow S, Rosser B, Massey C and della Pascua F (2016). “Geology of the Kaikōura Earthquake”. Presentation, University of Canterbury, Christchurch.
Stirling MW, Litchfield NJ, Villamor P, Van Dissen RJ, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Barnes P, Langridge RM, Little T, Barrell DJA, Mountjoy J, Ries WF, Rowland J, Fenton C, Hamling I, Asher C, Barrier A, Benson A, Bischoff A, Borella J, Carne R, Cochran UA, Cockroft M, Cox SC, Duke G, Fenton F, Gasston C, Grimshaw C, Hale D, Hall B, Hao KX, Hatem A, Hemphill-Haley M, Heron DW, Howarth J, Juniper Z, Kane T, Kearse J, Khajavi N, Lamarche G, Lawson S, Lukovic B, Madugo C, Manousakis I, McColl S, Noble D, Pedley K, Sauer K, Stahl T, Strong DT, Townsend DB, Toy V, Villeneuve M, Wandres A, Williams J, Woelz S and R. Zinke (2017). “The Mw7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake: Surface fault rupture and seismic hazard context”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 73-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.73-84
Hamling IJ, Hreinsdóttir S, Clark K, Elliott J, Liang C, Fielding E, Litchfield N, Villamor P, Wallace L, Wright TJ, D’Anastasio E, Bannister S, Burbidge D, Denys P, Gentle P, Howarth J, Mueller C, Palmer N, Pearson C, Power W, Barnes P, Barrell DJA, Van Dissen R, Langridge R, Little T, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Rowland J and Stirling M (2017). “Complex multifault rupture during the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand”. Science, 356(6334), doi:10.1126/science.aam7194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam7194
Dellow S, Massey C, Cox S, Archibald G, Begg J, Bruce Z, Carey J, Davidson J, Della Pasqua F, Glassey P, Hill M, Jones K, Lyndsell B, Lukovic B, McColl S, Rattenbury M, Read S, Rosser B, Singeisen C, Townsend D, Villamor P, Villeneuve M, Godt J, Jibson R, Allstadt K, Rengers F, Wartman J, Rathje E, Sitar N, Adda A-Z, Manousakis J and Little M (2017). “Landslides caused by the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake and the immediate response”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 106-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.106-116
QuakeCoRE, GEER, and EERI (2017). “M7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand Earthquake on November 14, 2016”. QuakeCoRE, GEER, and EERI, Christchurch, 24pp.
Stevenson JR, Becker J, Cradock-Henry N, Johal S, Johnston D, Orchiston C and Seville E (2017). “Economic and social reconnaissance: Kaikōura Earthquake 2016”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 346-355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.343-351
Stats NZ (2013). 2013 Census QuickStats about a place: Christchurch City. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/quickstats-about-a-place.aspx?request_value=14758&tabname= (accessed 02/05/2017).
Bradley, BA, Razafindrakoto HN and Polak V (2017). “Ground‐motion observations from the 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand, earthquake and insights from broadband simulations”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 740-756. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220160225
New Zealand Government (2011). “Connecting New Zealand: A Summary of the Government's Policy Direction for Transport”. Ministry of Transport, Wellington, New Zealand, 48pp.
KiwiRail (2017). Bridge demolition about to begin. http://www.kiwirail.co.nz/news/464/130/Bridge-demolition-about-to-begin.html (accessed 02/05/2017).
Ministry of Transport (2017). “Economic Impact of the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake: A Report Prepared for the Ministry of Transport”. Market Economics, Auckland, 60pp.
New Zealand Government (2015). “The Thirty Year New Zealand Infrastructure Plan 2015”. National Infrastructure Unit, Wellington, 86pp.
The Treasury (2016). “National State of Infrastructure Report 2016: Progress one year on from the Thirty Year New Zealand Infrastructure Plan”. National Infrastructure Advisory Board & the Treasury's National Infrastructure Unit, Wellington, 73pp.
Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (2002). “Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002”. Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, Wellington.
New Zealand Government (2015). “The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan 2015”. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet and Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management, Wellington, 321pp.
Earthquake Commission (2012). “The Value of Lifeline Seismic Risk Mitigation in Christchurch”. New Zealand Lifelines, Waikanae, 41pp.
New Zealand Lifelines (2007). “New Zealand Lifelines Brochure”. New Zealand Lifelines, Waikanae, 4pp.
Centre for Advanced Engineering (1997). “Risks & Realities: A Multi-disciplinary Approach to the Vulnerability of Lifelines to Natural Hazards”. Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 350pp.
Giovinazzi S, Wilson T, Davis C, Bristow D, Gallagher M, Schofield A, Villemure M, Eidinger J and Tang A (2011). “Lifelines performance and management following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, New Zealand: highlights of resilience”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(4): 402-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.402-417
KiwiRail (2016). “Annual Integrated Report 2016”. KiwiRail, Wellington, 89pp.
New Zealand Transport Agency (2014). “State Highway Network Resilience National Programme Business Case: Delivering State Highway Resilience”. New Zealand Transport Agency, Wellington, 80pp.
Stuff (2016). Plans to fast track deepening of Kaikōura marina. http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/86772819/plans-to-fast-track-deepening-of-Kaikōura-marina (accessed 02/05/2017).
Radio New Zealand (2017). Insight: Keeping NZ Rail on the Tracks. http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/insight/audio/201840329/insight-keeping-nz-rail-on-the-tracks (accessed 02/05/2017).
Palermo A, Liu R, Rais A, McHaffie B, Andisheh K, Pampanin S, Gentile R, Nuzzo I, Granerio M, Loporcaro G, McGann C and Wotherspoon LM (2017). “Performance of road bridges during the 14 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 253-270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.253-270
Cubrinovski M, Bray JD, de la Torre C, Olsen MJ, Bradley BA, Chiaro G, Stocks E and Wotherspoon L (2017). “Liquefaction effects and associated damages observed at the Wellington Centreport from the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 152-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.152-173
Stuff (2016). New speed limits for alternative Picton to Christchurch highway. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/87848488/New-speed-limits-for-alternative-Picton-to-Christchurch-highway (accessed 02/05/2017).
Stuff (2017). Building bridges to get over traffic issues on Kaikōura alternative route. http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/national/89250771/Building-bridges-to-get-over-traffic-issues-on-Kaikōura-alternative-route (accessed 02/05/2017)
Nelson Live (2017). New Bridges on SH 63 to ease traffic. http://nelsonlive.co.nz/2017/02/new-bridges-on-sh-63-to-ease-traffic/ (accessed 02/05/2017).
The Marlborough Express (2017). Looters describe finding Kaikōura train after earthquake. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/89916837/looters-describe-finding-Kaikōura-train-after-earthquake (accessed 02/05/2017).
The Press (2016). Building transport resilience for the inevitable future disasters. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/nz-earthquake/87053620/building-transport-resilience-for-the-inevitable-future-disasters (accessed 02/05/2017).
Nelson Mail (2016). Rainbow road State Highway 1 option floated. http://www.stuff.co.nz/nelson-mail/86860201/rainbow-road-state-highway-1-option-floated (accessed 02/05/2017).
New Zealand Government (2016). Government to reinstate Kaikōura coastal route. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-reinstate-Kaikōura-coastal-route (accessed 02/05/2017).
New Zealand Government (2016). Alliance established to rebuild Kaikōura coastal route. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/alliance-established-rebuild-Kaikōura-coastal-route (accessed 02/05/2017).
Wikimedia Commons (2011). A rock fall shelter and aqueduct on the Arthurs Pass section of New Zealand State Highway 73, near Otira, New Zealand. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Mattinbgn/gallery_003#/media/File:Otira_Rock_Fall_Shelter_%26_Aqueduct.JPG (accessed 02/05/2017).
The Marlborough Express (2016). Marlborough airline Sounds Air launches new service to Kaikōura. http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/86606248/Marlborough-airline-Sounds-Air-launches-new-service-to-Kaikōura (accessed 02/05/2017).
The Marlborough Express (2016). Sounds Air offers additional Christmas flights as travellers look to avoid inland bypass. http://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/news/87195215/sounds-air-offers-additonal-christmas-flights-as-travellers-look-to-avoid-inland-bypass (accessed 02/05/2017).
Airshare (2016). Temporary Restricted Area in Place for Kaikōura. https://airshare.uberflip.com/news-hub-articles/temporary-restricted-area-in-place-for-Kaikōura (accessed 02/05/2017).
Stuff (2017). Kaikōura Earthquake tsunami was as high as 7 metres at one spot. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/90773348/Kaikōura-earthquake-tsunami-was-as-high-as-7-metres-at-one-spot (accessed 02/05/2017).
Science Media Centre (2016). Earthquakes and landslides - Expert Q&A. https://www.sciencemediacentre.co.nz/2016/11/17/earthquakes-and-landslides-expert-qa/ (accessed 02/05/2017).
Robinson TR, Buxton R, Wilson TM, Cousins WJ and Christophersen AM (2015). “Multiple infrastructure failures and restoration estimates from an Alpine Fault earthquake: Capturing modelling information for MERIT”. The Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Research Report, Issue 4, 89pp.