Impacts of the 14th November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake on three waters systems in Wellington, Marlborough and Kaikōura, New Zealand
We present preliminary observations on three waters impacts from the Mw7.8 14th November 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake on wider metropolitan Wellington, urban and rural Marlborough, and in Kaikōura township. Three waters systems in these areas experienced widespread and significant transient ground deformation in response to seismic shaking, with localised permanent ground deformation via liquefaction and lateral spreading. In Wellington, potable water quality was impacted temporarily by increased turbidity, and significant water losses occurred due to damaged pipes at the port. The Seaview and Porirua wastewater treatment plants sustained damage to clarifier tanks from water seiching, and increased water infiltration to the wastewater system occurred. Most failure modes in urban Marlborough were similar to the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence; however some rural water tanks experienced rotational and translational movements, highlighting importance of flexible pipe connections. In Kaikōura, damage to reservoirs and pipes led to loss of water supply and compromised firefighting capability. Wastewater damage led to environmental contamination, and necessitated restrictions on greywater entry into the system to minimise flows. Damage to these systems necessitated the importation of tankered and bottled water, boil water notices and chlorination of the system, and importation of portaloos and chemical toilets. Stormwater infrastructure such as road drainage channels was also damaged, which could compromise condition of underlying road materials. Good operational asset management practices (current and accurate information, renewals, appreciation of criticality, good system knowledge and practical contingency plans) helped improve system resilience, and having robust emergency management centres and accurate Geographic Information System data allowed effective response coordination. Minimal damage to the wider built environment facilitated system inspections. Note Future research will include detailed geospatial assessments of seismic demand on these systems and attendant modes of failure, levels of service restoration, and collaborative development of resilience measures.
Kaiser A, Balfour N, Fry B, Holden C, Litchfield N, Gerstenberger M, D’Anastasio E, Horspool N, McVerry G, Ristau J, Bannister S, Christophersen A, Clark K, Power W, Rhoades D, Massey C, Hamling I, Wallace L, Mountjoy J. Kaneko Y, Benites R, Van Houtte C, Dellow, S, Wotherspoon L, Elwood K and Gledhill K (2017). “The 2016 Kaikōura, New Zealand, earthquake: preliminary seismological report”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 727-739. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220170018
Stirling MW, Litchfield NJ, Villamor P, Van Dissen RJ, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Barnes P, Langridge RM, Little T, Barrell DJA, Mountjoy J, Ries WF, Rowland J, Fenton C, Hamling I, Asher C, Barrier A, Benson A, Bischoff A, Borella J, Carne R, Cochran UA, Cockroft M, Cox SC, Duke G, Fenton F, Gasston C, Grimshaw C, Hale D, Hall B, Hao KX, Hatem A, Hemphill-Haley M, Heron DW, Howarth J, Juniper Z, Kane T, Kearse J, Khajavi N, Lamarche G, Lawson S, Lukovic B, Madugo C, Manousakis I, McColl S, Noble D, Pedley K, Sauer K, Stahl T, Strong DT, Townsend DB, Toy V, Villeneuve M, Wandres A, Williams J, Woelz S and R. Zinke (2017).“The Mw7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake: Surface fault rupture and seismic hazard context”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2):73-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.73-84
Bradley BA, Razafindrakoto HNT and Polak V (2017). “Ground motion observations from the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand earthquake and insights from broadband simulations”. Seismological Research Letters (DOI: 10.1785/0220160225).
Bradley BA, Razafindrakoto HNT and Nazer MA (2017). “Strong ground motion observations of engineering interest from the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 85-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.85-93
Bradley BA, Wotherspoon LM and Kaiser AE (2017). “Ground motion and site effect observations in the Wellington Region from the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 94-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.94-105
Dellow S, Massey C, Cox S, Archibald G, Begg J, Bruce Z, Carey J, Davidson J, Della Pasqua F, Glassey P, Hill M, Jones K, Lyndsell B, Lukovic B, McColl S, Rattenbury M, Read S, Rosser B, Singeisen C, Townsend D, Villamor P, Villeneuve M, Godt J, Jibson R, Allstadt K, Rengers F, Wartman J, Rathje E, Sitar N, Adda A-Z, Manousakis J and Little M (2017). “Landslides caused by the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake and the immediate response”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 106-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.106-116
Davies AJ, Sadashiva V, Aghababaei M, Barnhill D, Costello SB, Fanslow B, Headifen D, Hughes M, Kotze R, Mackie J, Ranjitkar P, Thompson J, Troitino DR, Wilson T, Woods S and Wotherspoon LM (2017). “Transport infrastructures performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 271-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.271-299
Liu Y, Nair N, Renton A and Wilson S (2017). “Impact of the Kaikōura earthquake on the electrical power system infrastructure”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 300-305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.300-305
Stringer ME, Bastin S, McGann CR, Cappellaro C, El Kortbawi M, McMahon R, Wotherspoon LM, Green RA, Aricheta J, Davis R, McGlynn L, Hargraves S, van Ballegooy S, Cubrinovski M, Bradley BA, Bellagamba X, Foster K, Lai C, Ashfield D, Baki A, Zekkos A, Lee R and Ntritsos N (2017). “Geotechnical aspects of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake on the South Island of New Zealand”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 117-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.2.117-141
Davis CA (2014). “Water system service categories, post-earthquake interaction, and restoration strategies”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(4): 1487–1509. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/022912EQS058M
Jeon SS and O’Rourke TD (2005). “Northridge earthquake effects on pipelines and residential buildings”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(1): 294-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120040020
Eidinger JM (1998). “Water-Distribution System”. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989—Lifelines.
Maruyama Y and Nagata S (2015). “Vulnerability analysis of water distribution pipes based on the damage dataset compiled for Sendai City after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake”. Proceedings of the Tenth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Building an Earthquake-Resilient Pacific, 6-8 November, Sydney, Australia
Bradley BA and Cubrinovski M (2011). “Near-source strong ground motions observed in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake”. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): 853–865, doi:10.1785/gssrl.82.6.853. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.82.6.853
Bradley BA (2012). “Strong ground motion characteristics observed in the 4 September 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 42: 32–46, doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.06.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.06.004
Hughes MW, Quigley MC, van Ballegooy S, Deam BL, Bradley BA, Hart DE and Measures R (2015). “The sinking city: earthquakes increase flood hazard in Christchurch, New Zealand”. GSA Today, 25(3-4): 4-10, doi:10.1130/GSATG221A.1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/GSATG221A.1
Quigley MC, Hughes MW, Bradley BA, van Ballegooy S, Reid C, Morgenroth J, Horton T, Duffy B and Pettinga JR (2016). “The 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy”. Tectonophysics, 672-673: 228-274, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2016.01.044. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.01.044
Cubrinovski M, Hughes M, Bradley BA, McCahon I, McDonald Y, Simpson H, Cameron R, Christison M, Henderson B, Orense R and O’Rourke T (2011). “Liquefaction Impacts in Pipe Networks. Short Term Recovery Project No. 6. Natural Hazards Research Platform”. University of Canterbury, Civil & Natural Resources Engineering Research Report 2011-04, December 2011, 149 p.
Giovinazzi S, Wilson T, Davis C, Bristow D, Gallagher M, Schofield A, Villemure M, Eidinger J and Tang A (2011). “Lifelines performance and management following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand: Highlights of resilience”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 44(4): 402-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.402-417
Wareham DG and Bourke M (2013). “The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes: impact on the liquid waste management system of Christchurch, New Zealand”. Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 30(1): 1–14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286608.2012.709507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10286608.2012.709507
Cubrinovski M, Hughes M, Bradley BA, Noonan J, Hopkins R, McNeill S and English G (2014). “Performance of horizontal infrastructure in Christchurch City through the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence”. University of Canterbury, Civil & Natural Resources Engineering Research Report 2014-02, March 2014, 129 p.
Cubrinovski M, Hughes M and O’Rourke T (2014). “Impacts of liquefaction on the potable water system of Christchurch in the 2010–2011 Canterbury (NZ) earthquakes”. Journal of Water Supply: Research & Technology – Aqua, 63: 95–105.
O’Rourke TD, Jeon SS, Toprak S, Cubrinovski M, Hughes M, van Ballegooy S and Bouziou D (2014). “Earthquake response of underground pipeline networks in Christchurch, NZ”. Earthquake Spectra, 30: 183–204, doi: 10.1193/030413EQS062M. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/030413EQS062M
Morris J, McLachlan R, Callosa Tarr J and Kathirgirtham P (2014). “Research findings on the seismic response of underground utilities”. Proceedings of Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 14-19 September, Hamilton, NZ. https://www.waternz.org.nz/Article?Action=View&Article_id=210.
Cubrinovski M, Hughes M, Bradley BA, Noonan J, McNeill S, English G and Garcia Sampedro I (2015). “Horizontal Infrastructure Performance and Application of the Liquefaction Resistance Index Methodology in Christchurch City through the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence”. University of Canterbury, Civil & Natural Resources Engineering Research Report 2015-05, September 2015, 49 p.
Morris J, McFarlane P, Cook S and Hughes M (2015). “Understanding service pipe resilience”. Proceedings of Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 16-18 September, Hamilton, NZ. https://www.waternz.org.nz/Article?Action=View&Article_id=210.
Bouziou D and O’Rourke TD (2017). “Response of the Christchurch water distribution system to the 22 February 2011 earthquake”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 97: 14-24.
Kongar I, Esposito S and Giovinazzi S (2017). “Post-earthquake assessment and management for infrastructure systems: learning from the Canterbury (New Zealand) and L’Aquila (Italy) earthquakes”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15: 589-620, DOI 10.1007/s10518-015-9761-y.
Bradley BA, Comerio M, Cubrinovski M, Dellow S, Dizhur D, Elwood K, Giaretton M, Horspool N, Hughes M, Ingham J, Johnson L, Massey M, Seville E, Simkin G, Stevenson J, Wilson T and Wotherspoon L (2017). “QuakeCoRE, GEER, and EERI Preliminary Earthquake Reconnaissance Report: M7.8 Kaikōura, New Zealand Earthquake on November 14, 2016”. March 2017, 24 p.
Wellington Lifelines Group (2012). “Lifeline Utilities Restoration Times for Metropolitan Wellington Following a Wellington Fault Earthquake”. Report to the Wellington CDEM Group Joint Committee from the Wellington Lifelines Group, November 2012, 63 p. http://www.getprepared.org.nz/sites/default/files/uploads/WeLG%20Restoration%20times%20report%2020.13.pdf.
Cousins J (2013) “Wellington Without Water – Impacts of Large Earthquake”. June 2013, GNS Science Report 2012/30.
Wellington Water Limited (2015). “Water Supply Resilience Strategic Case”. August 2015, 10 p. https://wellingtonwater.co.nz/assets/Uploads/Water-Supply-Resilience-strategic-case-August-2015.pdf.
Holden C, Kaiser AE, Van Dissen R and Jury R (2013). “Sources, ground motion and structural response characteristics in Wellington of the 2013 Cook Strait earthquakes”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 46(4): 188-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.46.4.188-195
GeoNet (2013). “M 6.6, Lake Grassmere, 16 August 2013”. http://info.geonet.org.nz/display/quake/M+6.6,+Lake+Grassmere,+16+August+2013.
Swinnen L (2017). “Wellington close to running out of water after leak discovered in main supply pipe”. Stuff, 22 January 2017. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/88652473/Wellington-close-to-running-out-of-water-after-leak-discovered-in-main-supply-pipe.
Cann G (2017). “Wellington water pipes leaking a million litres a day since November earthquake”. March 12 2017. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/90311428/wellington-water-pipes-leaking-a-million-litres-a-day-since-november-earthquake.
Backhouse M (2016). “Gridlock after Wellington roads closed by flooding and slips start to reopen”. NZ Herald, November 15 2016. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=11748419.