New Zealand contributions to the Global Earthquake Model’s Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD)
The Global Earthquake Model’s (GEM) Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD) aims to develop, for the first time, a standardised framework for collecting and collating geocoded consequence data induced by primary and secondary seismic hazards to different types of buildings, critical facilities, infrastructure and population, and relate this data to estimated ground motion intensity via the USGS ShakeMap Atlas. New Zealand is a partner of the GEMECD consortium and to-date has contributed with 7 events to the database, of which 4 are localised in the South Pacific area (Newcastle 1989; Luzon 1990; South of Java 2006 and Samoa Islands 2009) and 3 are NZ-specific events (Edgecumbe 1987; Darfield 2010 and Christchurch 2011). This contribution to GEMECD represented a unique opportunity for collating, comparing and reviewing existing damage datasets and harmonising them into a common, openly accessible and standardised database, from where the seismic performance of New Zealand buildings can be comparatively assessed. This paper firstly provides an overview of the GEMECD database structure, including taxonomies and guidelines to collect and report on earthquake-induced consequence data. Secondly, the paper presents a summary of the studies implemented for the 7 events, with particular focus on the Darfield (2010) and Christchurch (2011) earthquakes. Finally, examples of specific outcomes and potentials for NZ from using and processing GEMECD are presented, including: 1) the rationale for adopting the GEM taxonomy in NZ and any need for introducing NZ-specific attributes; 2) a complete overview of the building typological distribution in the Christchurch CBD prior to the Canterbury earthquakes and 3) some initial correlations between the level and extent of earthquake-induced physical damage to buildings, building safety/accessibility issues and the induced human casualties.
Brzev S, Scawthorn C, Charleson AW, Allen L, Greene M, Jaiswal K and Silva V (2013). “GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0”. GEM Technical Report 2013-02, 180 pp.
Gallagher H, Farmer B, Mendoza, C, Lee C, Dickson H and Greene M (2013). GEM Building Taxonomy v2.0: Evaluation and Testing Report: http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-building-taxonomy/posts/report-on-evaluation-and-testing-of-the-gem-building-taxonomy-released/ (Accessed May 2014)
Allen TI, Wald DJ, Earle PS, Marano KD, Hovotec AJ, Lin K and Hearne MG (2009). “An Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalog for earthquake loss modeling”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 7(3): 701-718. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-009-9120-y
Global Administrative Areas (2012). GADM database of Global Administrative Areas, Version 2.0: www.gadm.org (Accessed October 2015).
Pomonis A and So EKM (2012). “Guidelines for the Collection of Consequence Data”. Report produced in the context of the GEM Earthquake Consequences Database Global Component project, 72 pp.
So EKM, Pomonis A, Below R, Cardona O, King A, Zulfikar C, Koyama M, Scawthorn C, Ruffle S and Garcia, D (2012). “An Introduction to the Global Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD)”. Proceedings of 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, 24-28 September 2012, Paper 1617.
Charleson A (2011). Review of Existing Structural Taxonomies: http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-building-taxonomy/posts/review-of-existing-structural-taxonomies (Accessed June 2014).
EERI (2000). World Housing Encyclopaedia: www.world-housing.net. (Accessed May 2014).
Brzev S, Scawthorn C and Charleson AW (2011). “GEM Basic Building Taxonomy – Beta (V1.0)”. Report produced in the context of the GEM Ontology and Taxonomy Global Component project, 39 pp.
Butcher G, Andrews L and Cleland G (1998). “The Edgecumbe Earthquake”. Center for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 118 pp.
Dowrick DJ (1991). “Damage costs for houses and farms as a function of intensity in the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 20: 455-469.
Dowrick DJ and Rhoades DA (1993). “Damage costs for commercial and industrial property as a function of intensity in the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 22: 869-884.
Pappin JW, Chandler AM and Coburn AW (1991). “The 1989 Newcastle Australian earthquake: field report by EEFIT”. Institution of Structural Engineers, London.
Coburn AW, Sakai S, Spence RJS and Pomonis A (1990) “A Parameterless Scale of Seismic Intensity for Use in Vulnerability Assessment”. Final Report, Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
Architectural Institute of Japan, AIJ (1992). Reports on the Damage Investigation of the 1990 Luzon Earthquake.
Tokimatsu K, Kojima H, Kuwayama S, Abe A and Midorikawa S (1994). “Liquefaction-induced damage to buildings in 1990 Luzon Earthquake”. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 120(2): 290-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1994)120:2(290)
Reese S, Cousins WJ, Power WL, Palmer NG, Tejakusuma IG and Nugrahad S (2007). “Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – ﬁeld observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami”. Natural Hazards Earth System Science, 7: 573–589.
Reese S, Bradley BA, Bind J, Smart G, Power W and Sturman J (2011). “Empirical building fragilities from observed damage in the 2009 South Paciﬁc tsunami”. Earth-Science Reviews, 107: 156–173.
UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team Samoa (ITST Samoa) (2009). “Interim Report of Field Survey 14th–21st October 2009”. Australian Tsunami Research Centre Miscellaneous Report No. 2, 172 pp.
Kam WY, Pampanin S, Dhakal R, Gavin HP and Roeder C (2010). “Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the September 2010 Darfield (Canterbury) Earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4): 340-350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.4.340-350
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (2009). “Building Safety Evaluation during a State of Emergency: Guidelines for Territorial Authorities”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 49pp.
Ingham J, and Griffith M (2011). “Performance of unreinforced masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield (Christchurch, NZ) earthquake”. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 11(3): 207-225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2010.11465067
Anagnostopoulou S, Bruneau M and Gavin HP (2010). “Performance of Churches during the Darfield Earthquake of September 4, 2010”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4): 374-381. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.4.374-381
Grünthal G (1998). “European Macroseismic Scale 1998”. European Seismological Commission, Luxembourg.
Ingham JM and Griffith MC (2011). “The Performance of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in the 2010/2011 Canterbury Earthquake Swarm”. Report to the Royal Commission of Inquiry, August 2011, 139 pp.
Ingham JM and Griffith MC (2011). “The performance of Earthquake Strengthened URM buildings in the Christchurch CBD in the 22 February 2011 Earthquake”. Addendum Report to the Royal Commission of Inquiry, October 2011, 111 pp.
Kam WY and Pampanin S (2011). “General Building Performance in the Christchurch CBD: A Contextual Report”. Report prepared for the Department of Building and Housing (DBH), 63 pp.
Kam WY and Pampanin S (2011). “The seismic performance of RC buildings in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake”. Structural Concrete, 12(4). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/suco.201100044
Kam WY, Pampanin S and Elwood K (2011). “Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the 22 February Christchurch (Lyttelton) Earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society For Earthquake Engineering, 44(4).
Pampanin S, Kam WY, Akguzel U, Tasligedik S and Quintana-Gallo P (2012). “Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the Christchurch CBD in 22 February 2011 Earthquake - Part 1: Overview”. Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury.
Pampanin S, Kam WY, Akguzel U, Tasligedik S and Quintana-Gallo P (2012). “Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the Christchurch CBD in 22 February 2011 Earthquake - Part 2: Damage Observation”. Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury.
Mitrani-Reiser J, Jacques C, Kirsch TD, Giovinazzi S, McIntosh JK and Wilson TM (2012). “Response of the regional health care system to the 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, NZ”. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, 24-28 September 2012.
McIntosh JK, Jacques C, Mitrani-Reiser J, Kirsch TD, Giovinazzi S and Wilson TM (2012). “The impact of the 22 February 2011 earthquake on Christchurch Hospital”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Wellington, New Zealand.
Holmes Consulting Group (2012). “Detailed Engineering Evaluation of Christchurch Women's Hospital”. Report provided to the Royal Commission, 66 pp.
Stuff.co.nz, Maps of the Locations of Fatalities: http://file.stuff.co.nz/stuff/12-51/flash/chch_earthquake2.html. (Accessed December 2013).
New Zealand Police. List of Deceased: http://www.police.govt.nz/major-events/previous-major-events/christchurch-earthquake/list-deceased. (Accessed December 2013).
Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission (2012). “Volume 4: Earthquake Prone-Buildings, Section 4: Individual unreinforced masonry buildings that caused fatalities”. Final Report, 27-164.
Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA). http://cera.govt.nz/demolitions/list (Accessed April 2014).
Lin S-L, Uma SR, Nayyerloo M, Buxton R and King AB (2014). “Characterisation of building performance with detailed engineering evaluation (DEE) data from the Canterbury earthquakes”. Proceedings of the ASEC 2014 Conference, Structural Engineering in Australasia – World Standards, July 9-11, Auckland, New Zealand.