Estimating earthquake and landslide tsunami hazard for the New Zealand coast

  • W.P. de Lange University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
  • V.G. Moon University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand

Abstract

Tsunamis are a significant hazard on the New Zealand coast, with historic events being mostly generated by submarine earthquakes and landslides. Historical data combined with numerical modelling provides the best estimates of potential tsunami behaviour, but requires more data than is normally available for New Zealand. Simple parametric models provide useful estimates of maximum tsunami amplitude for seismic and landslide generation mechanisms, and a viable approach to characterise potential tsunami hazard.

References

Abe, K., (1979). "Size of great earthquakes of 1837-1974 inferred from tsunami data". Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 1561-1568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB04p01561

Abe, K., (1995). "Estimate of tsunami run-up heights from earthquake magnitudes". In: Tsuchiya, Y., Shuto, N., (eds.), Tsunami: Progress in prediction, disaster prevention and warning. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 21-35.

Bardet, J.P.; Synolakis, C.E.; Davies, H.L.; Imamura, F., Okal, E.A., (2003). "Landslide tsunamis: Recent findings and research directions". Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, 1793-1809. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2406-0

Barnes, P.M., Lewis, K.B., (1991). "Sheet slides and rotational failures on a convergent margin: the Kidnappers Slide, New Zealand". Sedimentology, 38, 205-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1991.tb01257.x

Berryman, K.R.; Ota, Y., Hull, A.G., (1989). "Holocene paleoseismicity in the fold and thrust belt of the Hikurangi subduction zone, eastern North Island, New Zealand". Tectonophysics, 163, 185-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(89)90256-4

Blackford, M.E., (1984). "Use of the Abe magnitude scale by the tsunami warning system". Science of Tsunami Hazards, 2, 27-30.

Boon, J.D., Berquist, J.C.R., (1991). "Evaluation of sediment dynamics and the mobility of heavy minerals on a linear sand shoal". Journal of Coastal Research, 7, 989-1002.

Chick, L.M.; de Lange, W.P., Healy, T.R., (2001a). "Potential tsunami hazard associated with the Kerepehi Fault, Firth of Thames, New Zealand". Natural Hazards, 24, 309-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012210314609

Chick, L.M.; Healy, T.R., de Lange, W.P., (2001b). "Tsunami hazard in the Firth of Thames, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand". Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 34, 403-413.

Chubarov, L.B., Gusiakov, V.K., (1985). "Tsunamis and earthquake mechanisms in the island-arc regions". Science of Tsunami Hazards, 3, 3-21.

de Lange, W.P., (2000). "The last wave - tsunami". In: Hicks, G., Campbell, H., (eds.), Awesome forces: the natural hazards that threaten New Zealand, 2nd ed., Vol. Wellington: Te Papa Press. pp. 98-123.

de Lange, W.P., Healy, T.R., (1986). "New Zealand tsunamis 1840-1982". New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 29, 115-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1986.10427527

de Lange, W.P., Healy, T.R., (1997). "Numerical modelling of tsunamis associated with marl diapirism off Poverty Bay, New Zealand". Proceedings of Combined Australasian Coastal Engineering and Ports Conference, Christchurch, Vol 1043-1047.

Downes, G.; Webb, T.; McSaveney, M.; Darby, D.; Doser, D.; Chague-Goff, C., Barnett, A., (2001a). "The 26 March and 17 May 1947 Gisborne earthquakes and tsunami: implications for tsunami hazard for the east coast, North Island, New Zealand". Proceedings of International Tsunami Workshop "Tsunami Risk Assessment Beyond 2000: Theory, Practice and Plans", Moscow, Russia.

Downes, G.; Webb, T.; McSaveney, M.; Darby, D.; Doser, D.; Chague-Goff, C., Barnett, A., (2001b). "The 1947 Gisborne, New Zealand, earthquakes and tsunami". Proceedings of European Geophysical Society, XXVI General Assembly, Nice, France, European Geophysical Society.

Dowrick, D.J., Rhoades, D.A., (1998). "Magnitudes of New Zealand Earthquakes, 1901-1993". Bulletin of The New Zealand National Society For Earthquake Engineering, 31, 260-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.31.4.260-280

Eiby, G.A., (1982a). "Earthquakes and tsunamis in a region of diapiric folding". Tectonophysics, 85, T1-T8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(82)90095-6

Eiby, G.A., (1982b). "Two New Zealand tsunamis". Journal of The Royal Society Of New Zealand, 12, 337-351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03036758.1982.10415340

Geist, E.L., (1998). "Local tsunamis and earthquake source parameters". Advances in Geophysics, 39, 117-209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2687(08)60276-9

Geist, E.L., Dmowska, R., (1999). "Local tsunamis and distributed slip at the source". Pure and Applied Geophysics, 154, 485-512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050241

Goldsmith, P.; Barnett, A.; Goff, J.; McSaveney, M.; Elliott, S., Nongkas, M., (1999). "Report of the New Zealand Reconnaissance Team to the area of the 17th July 1998 Tsunami at Sissano Lagoon, Papua New Guinea". Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 32, 102-118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.32.2.102-118

Grapes, R., Downes, G., (1997). "The 1855 Wairarapa, New Zealand, Earthquake – analysis of historical data". Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 30, 271-368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.30.4.271-368

Gusiakov, V.K., (2001). "Red", "Green" and "Blue" tsunamigenic earthquakes and their relation with conditions of oceanic sedimentationi n the Pacific. In: Hebenstreit, G.T., (ed.), Tsunami research at the end of a critical decade, 18. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 17-32.

Hammack, J.L., (1973). "A note on tsunamis: their generation and propagation in an ocean of uniform depth". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 60, 769-799. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112073000479

Hancox, G.T.; Perrin, N.D., Dellow, G.D., (2002). "Recent studies of historical earthquake-induced landsliding, ground damage, and MM intensity in New Zealand". Bulletin Of The New Zealand National Society For Earthquake Engineering, 35, 59-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.35.2.59-95

Hicks, D.M.; Shankar, U., McKerchar, A., (2003). "Sediment yield estimates: a GIS tool". Water & Atmosphere, 11, 26-27.

Iwasaki, S.I., (1997). "The wave forms and directivity of a tsunami generated by an earthquake and a landslide". The Science of Tsunami Hazards, 15, 23-40.

Kanamori, H., (1972). "Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes". Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 6, 346-359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(72)90058-1

Lamarche, G.; Collot, J.-Y.; Garlick, R., de Lange, W.P., (2002). "Submarine avalanche volume calculations, a prerequisile to Lsunami modeling: the example of the Ruatoria Debris Avalanche". Proceedings of European Geophysical Society, XXVII General Assembly, Nice, France, European Geophysical Society, Vol 4. A 150.

Lewis, K.B.: Garlick, R.; Hill, P.; McKay, K.; Mitchell, J.; Orpin, A., Saunders, H., (2001). "Underwater landscape evolution with NIWA's new MultiBeam". Water and Atmosphere, 9, 24-25.

Magill, C.R., (2001). "Numerical modelling of tsunami generated by mass movement". MSc thesis, University of Waikato, 198.

McAdoo, B.G., Walls, P., (2004). "Tsunami hazard from submarine landslides on the Oregon continental slope". Marine Geology, 203, 235-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00307-4

Pelinovsky, E., Poplavsky, A., (1997). "Simplified model of tsunami generation by submarine landslides". Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 21, 13-17.

Reyners, M.; McGinty, P.; Cos, S.; Turnbull, I.; O'Neill, T.; Gledhill, K.; Hancox, G.T.; Beavan, J.; Matheson, D.; McVerry, G.H.: Cousins, J.; Zhao, J.; Cowan, H.: Caldwell, G.; Bennie, S., GeoNet Team, (2003). "The Mw 7.2 Fiordland Earthquake of August 21, 2003: Background and preliminary results". Bulletin Of The New Zealand National Society For Earthquake Engineering, 36, 233-248.

Ruff, L.J., (2003). "Some aspects of energy balance and tsunami generation by earthquakes and landslides". Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, 2155-2176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2424-y

Satake, K., Tanioka, Y., (1999). "Sources of tsunami and tsunamigenic earthquakes in subduction zones". Pure and Applied Geophysics, 154, 467-483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050240

Stirling, M.W.; McVerry, G.H., Berryman, K.R., (2002). "A new seismic hazard model for New Zealand". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92, 1878-1903. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120010156

Walters, R.A., (2002). "Long wave resonance on the New Zealand coast". NIWA, Technical Report 109, 32 p.

Ward, S.N., (1980). "Relationships of tsunami generation and an earthquake source". Journal of Physics of the Earth, 28, 441-474. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4294/jpe1952.28.441

Watts, P.; Grilli, S.T.; Kirby, J.T.; Fryer, G.J., Tappin, D.R., (2003). "Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully non-linear tsunami generation model". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 3, 391-402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-3-391-2003

White-Parsons, G.D., (I 944). "The construction of jetties in exposed roadsteads, with particular reference to the reinforced concrete structure provided at Tolaga Bay, New Zealand". Journal of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 4, 214-227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/ijoti.1944.13980

Published
2004-06-30
How to Cite
Lange, W. de, & Moon, V. (2004). Estimating earthquake and landslide tsunami hazard for the New Zealand coast. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 37(2), 62-69. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.37.2.62-69
Section
Articles