Liquefaction at Kaiapoi in the
 1901 Cheviot, New Zealand, earthquake

  • J. B. Berrill University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • P. C. Mulqueen Kingston Morrison, Consulting Engineers, Wellington, New Zealand
  • E. T. C. Ooi University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Abstract

Seismic liquefaction occurred in northeast Kaiapoi during the 1901 Cheviot earthquake. A contemporary newspaper report describes the ejection of sand and lateral spreading in Waites' market garden at the east end of Sewell Street, Kaiapoi and also south of the Waimakariri River near Belfast.

Piezocone probing and rotary drilling on the Waites property in Sewell Street and at three other sites in northeast Kaiapoi found loose, fine sands and silty sands with cone resistance 4: as low as 2 to 3 MPa; it is not surprising that liquefaction was observed in 1901.

Lack of precise seismological parameters for the 1901 earthquake precludes any definite conclusions about the performance of liquefaction potential models. However, the occurrence of liquefaction strongly suggests that the M6.5 magnitude estimated by Dibble et al. [1980] is too small, and that local magnitude in 1901 was larger than the surface-wave value of about 6.9 of Dowrick and Smith [1990]. A value in the range of 7.1 to 7.5 seems more likely.

Comparison of Dutch cone penetrometer resistances and standard penetration test N-values supports the old qc (bars)/N = 4 rule. Because of the large amount of scatter, use of the more refined rule of Robertson of Campanella, where qc /N is a function of D50, does not seem justified.

The penetration testing results confirm that there is a significant risk of liquefaction at Kaiapoi. Furthermore, we now have four reference sites, each with slightly different soil conditions, whose performance can be monitored following future earthquakes in the region.

References

Berrill, J.B., P. C. Mulqueen, E.T. C. Ooi, and J.-L. Pautre. 1994. Liquefaction at Kaiapoi in the 1901 Cheviot, New Zealand Earthquake. Research Report No. 94/3, Dept of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Canterbury, New Zealand. 43 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.27.3.178-189

Bienvenu, V. C. 1988. Studies of Liquefaction in the 1929 Murchison and 1968 Inangahua, New Zealand Earthquakes. ME Thesis, University of Canterbury. 161 pp.

Brown, L. J. and J. H. Webber. 1992. Geology of the Christchurch Urban Area., Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt, NZ. 104 pp.

Davis, R. 0. and J. B. Berrill. 1982. Energy Dissipation and Seismic Liquefaction in Sands. Intl. J. Earthq. Eng. and Struct. Dyn. 10:59-68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290100105

Dibble, R.R., J. H. Ansell, J.B. Berrill. 1980. Report on a study of seismic risk for BP (NZ) Ltd sites at Woolston and Heathcote. Unpublished report to BP (NZ) Ltd.

Dowrick, D. J. and E. G. C Smith. 1990. Surface Wave Magnitudes of Some New Zealand Earthquakes 1901-1988. Bull. NZ. Nat. Soc. Earthq. Eng. 23:198-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.23.3.198-210

Fairless, G. J. and J. B. Berrill. 1984. Liquefaction during Historic Earthquakes in New Zealand. Bull. NZ. Nat. Soc. Earthq. Eng. 17:280-291.

Kuribayashi, E. and F. Tatsuoka. 1975. Brief Review of Liquefaction during Earthquakes in Japan. Soils and Found. 15:81-92, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.15.4_81

Liao, S. C., D. Veneziano and R. V. Whitman. 1988. Regression models for evaluating liquefaction probability. J. Geotechnical Eng. 114:389-411. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1988)114:4(389)

McKay, A. 1902. Report on the recent seismic disturbances within Cheviot County in North Canterbury and the Amuri district of Nelson, New Zealand (November and December 1901). Wellington, Government Printer. 88 pp.

Mulqueen, P. C. 1988. Studies of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction at Kaiapoi New Zealand. Master of Engineering Report, University of Canterbury, Christchurch NZ.

Ooi, E. T. C. 1987, Investigation of Liquefaction in the Buller Region. Master of Engineering Report, University of Canterbury, Christchurch NZ.

Robertson, P. K., R. G. Campanella and A. Wightman. 1983. SPT-CPT Correlations. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 109(GT11): 1449-1459.

Reid, R. E. and R. H. Poynter. 1982. The Waimakariri River Improvement Scheme: 1982 Rqiew. Unpublished report, North Canterbury Catchment Board, Christchurch, NZ.

Robertson, P. K. and R. G. Campanella. 1985. Liquefaction· potential of sands using the CPT. J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE 111: 384-403.

Zhou, S. 1980. Evaluation of the liquefaction of sand by static cone penetration test. Proc. 7th World Conf. Earthq. Eng. Istanbul 3:156-162.

Published
1994-09-30
How to Cite
Berrill, J. B., Mulqueen, P. C., & Ooi, E. T. C. (1994). Liquefaction at Kaiapoi in the
 1901 Cheviot, New Zealand, earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 27(3), 178-189. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.27.3.178-189
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)