Vulnerability and seismic risk assessment of buildings following the 1989 Newcastle, Australia earthquake
Ten days after the Newcastle, Australia earthquake of 28 December, 1989, the UK-based Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) mounted a five day mission to the affected area. This paper presents the findings of the EEFIT investigation and subsequent follow up studies in relation to the extent of building damage and its distribution within the City of Newcastle and the surrounding urban area. Results are based on both detailed street surveys and general damage surveys, the former carried out in two areas, namely the heavily damaged suburban district of Hamilton (3km west of the city centre) and the Newcastle central business district. The findings of these surveys have provided valuable information on the vulnerability of building stock of types common to other parts of Australia, the UK and elsewhere, and hence form an important database for the accurate assessment of seismic risk to buildings in regions of low seismicity. This information will assist the development of realistic, economical seismic code provisions for building design and construction in low-risk areas. An important feature arising from the surveys and subsequent analytical studies of site response in the heavily damaged districts within the Hunter River alluvial basin is that, contrary to reports published by the Institution of Engineers, Australia amongst others, the areas of deep alluvial soil and fill do not correlate strongly with the more heavily damaged districts determined from post-earthquake assessments. Hence, suggestions that this form of site soil amplification effect played a major part in the distribution and extent of heavy damage in this earthquake are somewhat misleading for the future development of planning and design regulations. Furthermore, the results of site response analyses show that it is more likely to be the shallower soils near the border of the alluvial basin which tend to amplify bedrock ground motions generated by this type of earthquake.
Mccue, K., Wesson, V. and Gibson, G. "Seismological Aspects of the Newcastle Earthquake of 28 December 1989" Proc. of Conf. on the Newcastle Earthquake, Institution of Engineers Australia, February 1990.
Rynn J. M. W., Denham D., Greenhalgh S., Jones T., Gregson P. J. , Mccue K. F. and Smith R. S., "Atlas of Isoseismal Maps of Australian Earthquakes, Part 2," Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Bulletin 222, Canberra, 1989.
Gaull B. A., Michael-Leiba M. 0. and Rynn J. M. w., "Probabilistic Earthquake Risk Maps of Australia," Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 169-187, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099008727918
Pappin J. W., Chandler A. M. and Coburn A.W., "The 1989 Newcastle Australian Earthquake: A Field Report by EEFIT," Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team, Institution of Structural Engineers, London, April 1991.
The Institution of Engineers, Australia, "Newcastle Earthquake study, " Report for NSW state Government, (Ed.) Melchers R. E., March 1990.
Melchers R. E. and Page A. W., "Preliminary Report on Newcastle Earthquake," Dept of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Newcastle, 11pp, Jan. 1990 (reprinted in Civil College Tech. Rep. Engineer's Australia, pp. 4-6, June 1990).
Perry, c., "Newcastle Earthquake," EERI Newsletter, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 5-10, May 1990.
Brunsdon, D. R., "The December 28, 1989 Newcastle, Australia Earthquake," Bull. N. Z. Nat. Soc. for Earthquake Eng., Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 102-120, June 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.23.2.102-120
Toro G. R. and McGuire R. K., "An Investigation into Earthquake Ground Motion Characteristics in Eastern North America," Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Vol. 77, No. 2, pp. 468-489, 1987.
Atkinson G. M. and Boore D. M., "Recent Trends in Ground Motion and Spectral Response Relations for North America," Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 15-35, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585556
Coburn A. w., Sakai S., Spence R. J. S. and Pomonis A., "A Parameterless Scale of Seismic Intensity for Use in V ulnerability Assessment", Working Paper 90/1, The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban studies University of Cambridge, 1990.
Coburn A. w., "Relative Vulnerability Assessment", 8th European Conf. on Earthquake Eng., Lisbon, Vol. 2, Sect. 4.2, pp 23-30, 1986.
Coburn A. W., Hughes R. E., Nash D. F. T. and Spence R. J. S., "Damage Assessment and Ground Motion in the Italian Earthquake of 23.11.1980", 7th European Conf. on Earthquake Eng., Athens, 1982.
Stuart H. J., "Newcastle Earthquake 28th December 1989: A Perspective of Council's Role in Disaster Management," Newcastle City Council, Department of Health and Building Services, April 1990.
Heidebrecht A. c., Henderson R., Naumoski N. and Pappin J. w., "Seismic Response and Design for Structures Located on Soft Clay Sites," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 27, pp. 330- 341, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/t90-044
Henderson P., Heidebrecht A. C., Naumoski N. and Pappin J. W., "Site Response Effects for Structures Located on Sand sites," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 27, pp.342-354, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/t90-045
Seed H.B., Romo M. P., Sun J., Jaime A. and Lysmer J., "Relationships Between Soil Conditions and Earthquake Ground Motions in Mexico City in the Earthquake of Sept. 19, 1985,” Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California Berkeley, Report UCB/EERC- 87/15, 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585498
Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT), "The Loma Prieta Earthquake of 17 October 1989", Institution of Structural Engineers, London, 1991.
Diessel, C. F. K., "Newcastle and Tomaya Coal Measures," Dept of Mineral Resources and Geology Survey of New South Wales, Bulletin No. 26: A Guide to the Sydney Basin, pp. 100-114, 1980.
Department of Mines, "Newcastle New South Wales 1:250000 Geological Series Sheet S1 56-2,” Sydney, 1966.
Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT), "The Liege Earthquake 8th November 1983 - Damage Inspection Report" Ove Arup & Partners London, Jan. 1984.
Standards Association of Australia, "The Design of Earthquake-Resistant Buildings," Australian standard 2121, Sydney, 1979.
Newcastle City Council, "Interim Requirements for the Design of Earthquake Resistant Buildings," Report 60/22/-/17, Town Clerk's Co-ordination Committee on Matters Relating to the Health and Building Services Division, March 1990.
Copyright (c) 1991 A. M. Chandler, J. W. Pappin, A. W. Coburn
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.