Site characterisation of GeoNet stations for the New Zealand Strong Motion Database
The New Zealand Strong Motion Database provides a wealth of new strong motion data for engineering applications. In order to utilise these data in ground motion prediction, characterisation of key site parameters at each of the ~497 past and present GeoNet strong motion stations represented in the database is required. Here, we present the compilation of a complete set of site metadata for the New Zealand database, including four key parameters: i) NZS1170.5 site subsoil classification, ii) the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), iii) fundamental site period (Tsite) and iv) depth to a shear-wave velocity of 1000 m/s (Z1.0, a proxy for depth to bedrock). In addition, we have assigned a quality estimate (Quality 1 – 3) to each numerical parameter to provide a qualitative estimate of the uncertainty. New high-quality Tsite, Vs30 and Z1.0 estimates have been obtained from a variety of recent studies, and reconciled with available geological information.
This database will be used in efforts to guide development and testing of new and existing ground motion prediction models in New Zealand, allowing re-examination of the most important site parameters that control site response in a New Zealand setting. Preliminary analyses, using the newly compiled data, suggest that high quality site parameters can reduce uncertainty in ground motion prediction. Furthermore, the database can be used to identify suitable rock reference sites for seismological research, and as a guide to more detailed site-specific references in the literature. The database provides an additional resource for informing engineering design, however it is not suitable as a replacement for site-specific assessment.
McVerry GH, Zhao JX, Abrahamson NA and Somerville PG (2006). “New Zealand acceleration response spectrum attenuation relations for crustal and subduction zone earthquakes”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 39(1): 1-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.39.1.1-58
McVerry G (2003). “From hazard maps to code spectra for New Zealand”. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Christchurch, 13-15 February.
Bradley BA (2013). “A New Zealand-specific pseudo-spectral acceleration ground-motion prediction equation for active shallow crustal earthquakes based on foreign models”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 103(3): 1801-1822. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120021
Abrahamson N, Silva W and Kamai R (2014). “Summary of the ASK14 ground motion relation for active crustal regions”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(3): 1025-1055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/070913EQS198M
Boore DM, Stewart JP, Seyhan E and Atkinson GM (2014). “NGA-West 2 equations for predicting PGA, PGV, and 5%-Damped PSA for shallow crustal earthquakes”. Earthquake Spectra, 3: 1057-1085.
Chiou B and Youngs R (2014). “Update of the Chiou and Youngs NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(3): 1117-1153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/072813EQS219M
McVerry GH (2011). “Site-effect terms as continuous functions of site period and Vs30”.. Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, “Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society”, Auckland, 14-16 April,, Paper 010.
Hassani B and Atkinson G (2016). “Applicability of the site fundamental frequency as a Vs30 proxy for central and eastern North America”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 106(2): 653-664. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120150259
Van Houtte C, Bannister S, Holden C, Bourguignon S and McVerry G (2017). “The New Zealand strong motion database”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(1): 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.50.1.1-20
Cousins WJ, Perrin ND, McVerry GH, Hefford RT and Porritt TE (1996). “Ground conditions at strong-motion recording sites in New Zealand”. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences science report 96/33. 244 p.
Van Dissen RJ, Barnes P, Beavan RJ, Cousins WJ, Dellow GD, Holden C, Fry B, Langridge RM, Litchfield NJ, Little T, McVerry GH, Ninis D, Rhoades DA, Robinson R, Saunders WSA, Villamor P, Wilson KJ, Barker PR, Berryman KR, Benites RA, Brackley HL, Bradley BA, Carne R, Cochran UA, Hemphill-Haley M, King AB, Lamarche G, Palmer NG, Perrin ND, Pondard N, Rattenbury MS, Read SAL, Semmens S, Smith E, Stephenson WR, Wallace LM, Webb TH and Zhao JX (2010). “It's our fault : better defining earthquake risk in Wellington”. Proceedings of “Geologically active”: 11th Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment, Auckland, 5-10 September, Paper 008.
Standards New Zealand 2004. “Structural Design Actions – Part 5 Earthquake Actions – New Zealand”. New Zealand Standard NZS 1170.5:2004.
Wotherspoon L, Orense R, Bradley B, Cox B, Wood C and Green RA (2015). “Geotechnical Characterisation of Christchurch Strong Motion Stations”. Version 3, Earthquake Commission Report (Project No. 12/629), Earthquake Commission (EQC), Wellington, New Zealand.
Stewart JP, Boore DM, Campbell K, Erdik M, Silva W (2013). “Define a consistent strategy to model ground motion: Site effects in parametric ground motions”. Report produced in context of GEM GMPE project, available from http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-gmpes.
Bozorgnia Y, Abrahamson NA, Al Atik L, Ancheta TD, Atkinson GM, Baker JW, Baltay A, Boore DM, Campbell KW, Chiou BS-J, Darragh R, Day S, Donahue J, Graves RW, Gregor N, Hanks T, Idriss IM, Kamai R, Kishida T, Kottke A, Mahin SA, Rezaeian S, Rowshandel B, Seyhan E, Shahi S, Shantz T, Silva W, Spudich P, Stewart JP, Watson-Lamprey J, Wooddell K and Youngs R (2014). “NGA-West2 Research Project”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(3): 973-987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/072113EQS209M
Chiou BS-J and Youngs RR (2008). “An NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra”. Earthquake Spectra 24(1): 173-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2894832
Power M, Chiou B, Abrahamson N, Bozorgnia Y, Shantz T and Roblee C (2008). “An overview of the NGA project”. Earthquake Spectra, 24(1): 3-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2894833
Campbell K and Bozorgnia Y (2014). “NGA-West2 ground motion model for the average horizontal components of PGA, PGV, and 5% damped linear acceleration response spectra”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(3): 1087-1115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/062913EQS175M
Chiou B, Youngs RR, Abrahamson N and Addo K (2010). “Ground-motion attenuation model for small-to-moderate shallow crustal earthquakes in California and its implications on regionalization of ground-motion prediction models.” Earthquake Spectra, 26(4): 907-926. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3479930
Van Houtte C, Ktenidou OJ, Larkin T and Kaiser AE (2012). “Reference stations for Christchurch”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 45(4): 184-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.45.4.184-195
Kaiser AE, Oth,A and Benites RA (2013). “Source, path and site effects influencing ground motions during the Canterbury earthquake sequence, determined from spectral inversions”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Meeting, Wellington, 26 – 28 April, Paper 18.
Wotherspoon LM, Bradley BA, Thomson EM, Hills AJ, Jeong S, Wood CM and Cox BR (2015). “Development of deep VS profiles and site periods for the Canterbury region”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Technical Conference, Rotorua, 10-12 April.
Van Houtte C and Kaiser A (2017). Unpublished HVSR measurements at GeoNet strong motion sites based on earthquake HVSR, held at GNS Science.
Borcherdt RD (1970). “Effects of local geology on ground motion near San Francisco Bay”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 60(1): 29-61.
Oth A, Kaiser AE (2014) “Stress release and source scaling of the 2010-2011 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquake sequence from spectral inversion of ground motion data”. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(10): 2767-2782. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-013-0751-1
Lermo J and Chavez-Garcia FJ (1993). “Site effect evaluation using spectral ratios with only one station”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 83(5): 1574-594.
Nakamura Y (1989). “A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface”. Quarterly Report Railway Technical Research Institute, 30(1): 25–30.
Wotherspoon LM, Orense RP, Bradley BA, Cox BR, Wood CM and Green RA (2015). “Soil Profile Characterization of Christchurch Central Business District Strong Motion Stations”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 48(3): 147-157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.48.3.146-156
Stephenson WR, Barker PR, Bruce Z and Beetham RD (2011). “Immediate report on the use of microtremors (SPAC measurements) for assessing liquefaction potential in the Christchurch area”. GNS Science Report 2011/25.
Beetham RD, Stephenson WR and Barker PR (2010). “A non-invasive site investigation method for determining site class from micro-tremor records”. Proceedings of “Geologically Active” 11th Congress of the IAEG, Auckland, 5-10 September.
Lee RL, Bradley BA, Ghisetti F, Pettinga JR, Hughes MW and Thomson EM (2015). “A geology-based 3D seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Meeting, Rotorua, 10-12 April.
Cox B, Wood C and Teague D (2014). “Synthesis of the UTexas1 surface wave dataset blind-analysis study: Inter-analyst dispersion and shear wave velocity uncertainty”. Proceedings of the ASCE Geo-Congress 2014: Geo-characterization and modelling for sustainability, Atlanta, GA, 23-26 February.
Eberhart-Phillips D, Reyners M, Bannister S, Chadwick M and Ellis S (2010). “Establishing a versatile 3-D seismic velocity model for New Zealand”. Seismological Research Letters, 81(6): 992-1000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.81.6.992
Dorn C, Green AG, Jongens R, Carpentier S, Kaiser AE, Campbell F, Finnemore M and Pettinga J (2010). “High-resolution seismic images of potentially seismogenic structures beneath the northwest Canterbury Plains, New Zealand”. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(11): B11303, doi:10.1029/2010JB007459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007459
Jongens R (2011). “Contours for the base of Quaternary sediments under the Canterbury Plains between the Ashley and Rakaia rivers”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2011/132, 17p.
Semmens S, Perrin ND and Dellow GD (2010). “It's Our Fault: Geological and geotechnical characterisation of the Wellington central business district”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/176, 48 p. + 1 CD.
Boon DP, Perrin ND, Dellow GD and Lukovic B (2010). “It's Our Fault: Geological and geotechnical characterisation and site class revision of the Lower Hutt Valley”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/163, 56 p.
Fry B, Stephenson W and Benites R (2010). “It’s Our Fault - Seismic instrumentation and inversion for velocity structure of the Wellington region”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2010/18, 43p.
Kaiser A and Louie J. Unpublished refraction microtremor studies (ReMi) in the Wellington and Hutt Valley region, held at GNS Science.
Perrin ND, Stephenson WR, Semmens S (2010). “Site class determinations (NZS1170.5) in Wellington using borehole and microtremor techniques”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Conference, Wellington, 26-28 March.
Bruce Z, Barker P and Perrin N (2016). “Subsoil-class determination using surface-wave techniques in the Wellington region”. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering Annual Conference, Christchurch, 1 – 3 April.
Boon D, Perrin ND, Dellow GD, Lukovic B and Van Dissen R (2011). “NZS1170.5:2004 site subsoil classification of Lower Hutt”. Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper Number 013, Auckland, New Zealand.
Perrin ND, Heron DW, Kaiser AE and Van Houtte C (2015). “VS30 and NZS 1170.5 site class maps of New Zealand”. Proceedings of 2015 New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Technical Conference, Rotorua, 10-12 April, Paper O-07.
Jeong S and Bradley BA (2015). “Simulation of 2D site response at Heathcote Valley during the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence”. Proceedings of the 10th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Sydney, 6-8 November.
Borcherdt RD (1994). “Estimates of site-dependent response spectra for design (methodology and justification)”. Earthquake Spectra, 10(4): 617-653. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585791
Kaiser AE, Holden C and Massey CI (2014). “Site amplification, polarity and topographic effects in the Port Hills during the Canterbury earthquake sequence”. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2014/121, 33p.
Buech F, Davies TR and Pettinga JR (2010). “The Little Red Hill seismic experimental study: Topographic effects on ground motion at a bedrock-dominated mountain edifice”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 100(5A): 2219-2229.
Massey CI, Della-Pasqua FN, Holden C, Kaiser AE, Richards L, Wartman J, McSavaney MJ, Archibald GC, Yetton M and Janku L (2016). “Rock slope response to strong earthquake shaking”. Landslides, Online first: doi: 10.1007/s10346-016-0684-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-016-0684-8
Al Atik L, Abrahamson N, Bommer J, Scherbaum F, Cotton F and Kuehn N (2010). “The variability of ground motion prediction models and its components”. Seismological Research Letters, 81(5): 794-801. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.81.5.794
Copyright (c) 2017 Anna Kaiser, Chris Van Houtte, Nick Perrin, Liam Wotherspoon, Graeme McVerry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.