The "Eje Cafetero" earthquake, Colombia of January 25, 1999
A moderate shallow earthquake struck the west central region of Colombia on 25 January 1999. The earthquake caused damage of approximately NZ $3.7 billion (US $1.9 billion). 1,230 deaths. About 200,000 people were made homeless.
The level of damage and losses can be attributed to the shallow focus of the earthquake and its proximity to the major towns, together with topographical effects and soft soil conditions, which amplified the ground motions in some areas. The lack of a well-co-ordinated, national emergency response strategy, and the severe impact of the event on the organisations and key individuals responsible for managing the emergency response in the affected area, impaired the emergency response in the aftermath.
This paper summarises the main findings of a reconnaissance team to the region organised by the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering.
CEPAL, "Effectos del Terremoto de Enero de 1999 en Colombia", www.eclac.cl/espanol/noticias/comunicados/coterremoto.htm
Kellogg, J.N., and Vega, V., "Tectonic development of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian Andes: Constraints from global positioning system geodetic studies and gravity", in Mann, P., ed., Geologic and Tectonic Development of the Caribbean Plate Boundary in Southern Central America, Geological Society of America Special Paper 295, p. 75-90, 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE295-p75
Sarria, A., "Earthquake engineering", Ediciones Uniandes, Bogota, 1990, 610 p. (in Spanish)
US Geological Survey, "Map and database of active faults and folds of Colombia", USGS open- file report, in press.
Page, W.D., "Seismic geology and seismicity of northwestern Colombia". Woodward-Clyde Consultants report for ISA and Integral Ltd, San Francisco, 200 p.
Paris, G. and Romero, J., "Active faults in Colombia", INGEOMINAS, Boletin Geologico, v.34, no.2-3, p. 3-26, 1994, Bogota. (in Spanish)
INGEOMINAS, Terremoto del Quindfo (Enero 25 de 1999), Informe Tecnico Preliminar No 2, www.ingeomin.gov.co/-geoamb, Bogota. (in Spanish)
US Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, earthquakes.usgs.gov/neis/FM/Q99012511819.html
Ramirez, G., "Seismic vulnerability study of the water supply, wastewater system, power supply and telephone system in the city of Pereira", Empresas Publicas de Pereira, Pereira, March 1997. (in Spanish)
Jaramillo, J.D. and Palacio L.A., "Analysis of the records obtained in the Pereira-Dosquebradas Viaduct during the 25 January earthquake", Universidad EAFIT, Medellin, March 1999, 56 p. (in Spanish)
Standards New Zealand, "Code of practice for general structural design and design loadings for buildings NZS 4203:1992", Wellington.
Alzate, J.A., Personal Communication, Empresas Publicas de Armenia.
Benavides, L.M.. Personal Communication, Aguas y Aguas, Pereira.
Lopez, O., Personal Communication, Empresa de Energia del Quindio, Armenia.
UNDRO-ONAD, "Disaster mitigation program in Colombia 1988-1991", Project Report, United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator and The National Office for Risk Mitigation and Disaster Preparedness of Colombia, Bogota, 1991, 36 p.
Pagina 12 Journal, No.26, Pereira, February 1999, 32 p. (in Spanish)
Campos-Garcia, A., "Seismic risk mitigation project for Pereira", Dosquebradas and Santa Rosa de Cabal, Department of Risaralda, Colombia, 1997. (in Spanish)
Campos-Garcia, A., Personal Communication, CARDER, Pereira.
Colombian Civil Defence - Quindio Branch, "Contingency plan - Earthquakes", Armenia, 1996. (in Spanish)
Comite AIS 100, "Colombian seismic design code", Asociaci6n Colombiana de lngenieria Sismica, Bogota, 1984, 307 p. (in Spanish)
ATC 3-06, "Tentative provisions for the development of seismic regulations for buildings: a cooperative effort with the design professions, building code interests and the research community." Applied Technology Council, Washington, 505 p.
ACI 318-83, "Building code requirements for reinforced concrete" American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1983, 111 p.
NSR 98, "Colombian standard for seismic design and construction" Asociaci6n Colombiana de Ingenieria Sismica, Vols. 1 and 2, Bogota, 1998. (in Spanish)
Comite AIS 300, "Seismic hazard study for Colombia", Ingeominas and Asociacion de lngenieria Sismica, Bogota, Colombia, October 1996, 252 p. (in Spanish)
Ramirez, L.I., Londono, A., Dfaz, C.C., Duva, O., "Design aspects for the Pereira-Dosquebradas Viaduct", Colombian Institute of Cement Producers Bulletin, Vol. 71, Oct/Dec 1995, Medellin, p. 28- 34. (in Spanish)
El Tiempo, Business editorial, 28 February, 1999 (in Spanish).
Copyright (c) 2000 J. I. Restrepo, H. A. Cowan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.